MSCT of the Abdomen: Colon, Rectum and CT Colonography

  • Emanuele Neri
  • Annalisa Mantarro
  • Rossella Scandiffio
  • Pietro Bemi
  • Lorenzo Faggioni
  • Carlo Bartolozzi
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


The advent of MSCT represented a real turning point in the field of CT image acquisition and processing, particularly because of the innovative volumetric study by three-dimensional images. MSCT holds several advantages as compared with single-slice spiral CT. Indeed it allows to drastically reduce the scan time, motion artifacts (i.e., vascular pulse, breathing, peristalsis), radiation exposure, and intravenous dose of contrast medium, while yielding, at the same time, higher spatial resolution. An important application of MSCT concerns the assessment of colon. In particular, the advent and wide spread of CT colonography has resulted in a substantial favorable impact on the diagnostic approach to polypoid lesions and colorectal cancer. This chapter aims to review the most important imaging findings of CT imaging of the colon including CT-colonography and describes the current standards of acquisition techniques and image interpretation.


Ulcerative Colitis Acute Appendicitis Lynch Syndrome Fecal Occult Blood Test Acute Diverticulitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. ACR practice guideline for the performance of computed tomography (CT) colonography in adults. Revised 2009 (Res. 36)Google Scholar
  2. Ahmetoğlu A, Cansu A, Baki D, Kul S, Cobanoğlu U, Alhan E, Ozdemir F (2011) MDCT with multiplanar reconstruction in the preoperative local staging of rectal tumor. Abdom Imaging 36(1):31–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahualli J (2005) The target sign: bowel wall. Radiology 234(2):549–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Cancer Society (2011) Cancer facts and figures 2011. American Cancer Society, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  5. Angelelli G, Moschetta M, Binetti F, Cosmo T, Stabile Ianora AA (2010) Prognostic value of MDCT in malignant large-bowel obstructions. Radiol Med 115(5):747–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aschoff AJ (2006) MDCT of the abdomen. Eur Radiol 16(Suppl 7):M54–M57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Assenza M, Ricci G, Macciucca Mde V, Polettini E, Casciani E, De Cicco ML, Gualdi G, Modini C (2007) Comparison among preoperative single-slice CT and multi-slice CT in simple, closed loop and strangulating bowel obstruction. Hepatogastroenterology 54(79):2017–2023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Autenrieth DM, Baumgart DC (2011) Toxic megacolon. Inflamm Bowel Dis. doi:  10.1002/ibd.21847
  9. Backes FJ, Cohn DE (2011) Lynch syndrome. Clin Obstet Gynecol 54(2):199–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barish MA, Soto JA, Ferrucci JT (2005) Consensus on current clinical practice of virtual colonoscopy. Am J Roentgenol 184(3):786–792Google Scholar
  11. Bellomi M, Petralia G, Sonzogni A, Zampino MG, Rocca A (2007) CT perfusion for the monitoring of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in rectal carcinoma: initial experience. Radiology 244(2):486–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bitterling H, Rock C, Reiser M (2003) Computed tomography in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease—methodology of MSCT and clinical results. Radiologe 43(1):17–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boone D, Halligan S, Frost R, Kayc C, Laghi A, Lefere P, Neri E, Stoker J, Taylor SA (2011) CT colonography: who attends training? A survey of participants at educational workshops. Clin Radiol 66:510–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boyko EJ, Perera DR, Koepsell TD, Keane EM, Inui TS (1988) Effects of cigarette smoking on the clinical course of ulcerative colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 23(9):1147–1152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brucoli M, Giarda M, Benech A (2011) Gardner syndrome: presurgical planning and surgical management of craniomaxillofacial osteomas. J Craniofac Surg 22(3):946–948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buetow PC, Buck JL, Carr NJ, Pantongrag-Brown L (1995) From the archives of the AFIP colorectal adenocarcinoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 15(1):127–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cademartiri F, Palumbo A, Maffei E, Martini C, Malagò R, Belgrano M, La Grutta L, Bartolotta TV, Luccichenti G, Midiri M, Raaijmakers R, Mollet N, Zompatori M, Crisi G (2008) Noninvasive evaluation of the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery with multislice CT in patients with chronic mesenteric ischaemia. Radiol Med 113(8):1135–1142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cahir JG, Freeman AH, Courtney HM (2004) Multislice CT of the abdomen. Br J Radiol 77(Spec No 1):S64–S73Google Scholar
  19. Chen SC, Lu DS, Hecht JR, Kadell BM (1999) CT colonography: value of scanning in both the supine and prone positions. Am J Roentgenol 172(3):595–599Google Scholar
  20. Chen M, Li X, Xie JX (2006) Assessment of acute mesenteric ischemia with multi-slice spiral CT. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 28(1):80–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cotton PB, Durkalski VL, Pineau BC, Palesch YY, Mauldin PD, Hoffman B, Vining DJ, Small WC, Affronti J, Rex D, Kopecky KK, Ackerman S, Burdick JS, Brewington C, Turner MA, Zfass A, Wright AR, Iyer RB, Lynch P, Sivak MV, Butler H (2004) Computed tomographic colonography (virtual colonoscopy): a multicenter comparison with standard colonoscopy for detection of colorectal neoplasia. JAMA 291(14):1713–1719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Curia MC, Iure SD, De Lellis L, Veschi S, Mammarella S, White MJ, Bartlett J, Di Iorio A, Amatetti C, Lombardo M, Di Gregorio P, Battista P, Mariani-Costantini R, Williams SM, Cama A (2011) Increased variance in Germline Allele-Specific expression of APC associates With colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology (Epub ahead of print)Google Scholar
  23. Di Sabatino A, Biancheri P, Rovedatti L, Macdonald TT, Corazza GR (2011) Recent advances in understanding ulcerative colitis. Intern Emerg (Epub ahead of print)Google Scholar
  24. Duchat F, Soyer P, Boudiaf M, Martin-Grivaud S, Fargeaudou Y, Malzy P, Dray X, Sirol M, Hamzi L, Pocard M, Rymer R (2010) Multi-detector row CT of patients with acute intestinal bleeding: a new perspective using multiplanar and MIP reformations from submillimeter isotropic voxels. Abdom Imaging 35(3):296–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology CT Colonography Study Group Investigators (2007) Effect of directed training on reader performance for CT colonography: multicenter study. Radiology 242(1):152–161Google Scholar
  26. Filippone A, Ambrosini R, Fuschi M, Marinelli T, Genovesi D, Bonomo L (2004) Preoperative T and N staging of colorectal cancer: accuracy of contrast-enhanced multi-detector row CT colonography–initial experience. Radiology 231(1):83–90 (Epub 2004 Feb 27)Google Scholar
  27. Gao RN, Neutel CI, Wai E (2008) Gender differences in colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, hospitalizations and surgical procedures in Canada. J Public Health (Oxf) 30(2):194–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gazelle GS, Gaa J, Saini S, Shellito P (1995) Staging of colon carcinoma using water enema CT. J Comput Assist Tomogr 19(1):87–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goh V, Halligan S, Taylor SA, Burling D, Bassett P, Bartram CI (2007) Differentiation between diverticulitis and colorectal cancer: quantitative CT perfusion measurements versus morphologic criteria–initial experience. Radiology 242(2):456–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goh V, Halligan S, Wellsted DM, Bartram CI (2009) Can perfusion CT assessment of primary colorectal adenocarcinoma blood flow at staging predict for subsequent metastatic disease? A pilot study. Eur Radiol 19(1):79–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gore RM, Balthazar EJ, Ghahremani GG, Miller FH (1996) CT features of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Am J Roentgenol 167(1):3–15Google Scholar
  32. Gossios KJ, Tsianos EV, Kontogiannis DS, Demou LL, Tatsis CK, Papakostas VP, Merkouropoulos MM, Tsimoyiannis EC (1992) Water as contrast medium for computed tomography study of colonic wall lesions. Gastrointest Radiol 17(2):125–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Graser A, Stieber P, Nagel D, Schäfer C, Horst D, Becker CR, Nikolaou K, Lottes A, Geisbüsch S, Kramer H, Wagner AC, Diepolder H, Schirra J, Roth HJ, Seidel D, Göke B, Reiser MF, Kolligs FT (2009) Comparison of CT colonography, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy and faecal occult blood tests for the detection of advanced adenoma in an average risk population. Gut 58(2):241–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Halligan S, Altman DG, Taylor SA, Mallett S, Deeks JJ, Bartram CI, Atkin W (2005) CT colonography in the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer: systematic review, meta-analysis, and proposed minimum data set for study level reporting. Radiology 237(3):893–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hegde MR, Chong B, Blazo ME, Chin LH, Ward PA, Chintagumpala MM, Kim JY, Plon SE, Richards CS (2005) A homozygous mutation in MSH6 causes Turcot syndrome. Clin Cancer Res 11(13):4689–4693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Horton KM, Abrams RA, Fishman EK (2000a) Spiral CT of colon cancer: imaging features and role in management. Radiographics 20(2):419–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Horton KM, Corl FM, Fishman EK (2000b) CT evaluation of the colon: inflammatory disease. Radiographics 20(2):399–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Jaeckle T, Stuber G, Hoffmann MH, Freund W, Schmitz BL, Aschoff AJ (2008) Acute gastrointestinal bleeding: value of MDCT. Abdom Imaging 33(3):285–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ji JS, Wang ZF, Zhao ZW, Xu M, Tu JF (2009) Clinical application of MSCT in diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 89(47):3359–3362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson CD, Chen MH, Toledano AY, Heiken JP, Dachman A, Kuo MD, Menias CO, Siewert B, Cheema JI, Obregon RG, Fidler JL, Zimmerman P, Horton KM, Coakley K, Iyer RB, Hara AK, Halvorsen RA Jr, Casola G, Yee J, Herman BA, Burgart LJ, Limburg PJ (2008) Accuracy of CT colonography for detection of large adenomas and cancers. N Engl J Med 359(12):1207–1217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Johnson PT, Horton KM, Kawamoto S, Eng J, Bean MJ, Shan SJ, Fishman EK (2009) MDCT for suspected appendicitis: effect of reconstruction section thickness on diagnostic accuracy, rate of appendiceal visualization, and reader confidence using axial images. Am J Roentgenol 192(4):893–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Juhn E, Khachemoune A (2010) Gardner syndrome: skin manifestations, differential diagnosis and management. Am J Clin Dermatol 11(2):117–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kaur G, Masoud A, Raihan N, Radzi M, Khamizar W, Kam LS (2011) Mismatch repair genes expression defects and association with clinicopathological characteristics in colorectal carcinoma. Indian J Med Res 134(2):186–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Keedy AW, Yee J, Aslam R, Weinstein S, Landeras LA, Shah JN, McQuaid KR, Yeh BM (2011) Reduced cathartic bowel preparation for CT colonography: prospective comparison of 2-L polyethylene glycol and magnesium citrate. Radiology 261(1):156–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kim HC, Yang DM, Jin W, Park SJ (2008) Added diagnostic value of multiplanar reformation of multidetector CT data in patients with suspected appendicitis. Radiographics 28(2):393–405, discussion 405–406Google Scholar
  46. Kim SH, Lee JM, Eun HW, Lee MW, Han JK, Lee JY, Choi BI (2007) Two- versus three-dimensional colon evaluation with recently developed virtual dissection software for CT colonography. Radiology 244(3):852–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kirkpatrick ID, Kroeker MA, Greenberg HM (2003) Biphasic CT with mesenteric CT angiography in the evaluation of acute mesenteric ischemia: initial experience. Radiology 229(1):91–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Klessen C, Rogalla P, Taupitz M (2007) Local staging of rectal cancer: the current role of MRI. Eur Radiol 17(2):379–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lakatos PL, Lakatos L (2008) Risk for colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: changes, causes and management strategies. World J Gastroenterol 14(25):3937–3947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lefere P, Gryspeerdt S, Marrannes J, Baekelandt M, Van Holsbeeck B (2005) CT colonography after fecal tagging with a reduced cathartic cleansing and a reduced volume of barium. Am J Roentgenol 184(6):1836–1842Google Scholar
  51. Lefèvre A, Soyer P, Vahedi K, Guerrache Y, Bellucci S, Gault V, Boudiaf M (2011) Multiple intra-abdominal venous thrombosis in ulcerative colitis: role of MDCT for detection. Clin Imaging 35(1):68–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lim CM, Shridhar I, Tan L, Cheah WK (2006) Contrast CT in localization of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Asian J Surg 29(2):92–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu L, Zhong R, Wei S, Yin JY, Xiang H, Zou L, Chen W, Chen JG, Zheng XW, Huang LJ, Zhu BB, Chen Q, Duan SY, Rui R, Yang BF, Sun JW, Xie DS, Xu YH, Miao XP, Nie SF (2011) Interactions between Genetic Variants in the Adiponectin, Adiponectin Receptor 1 and Environmental Factors on the Risk of Colorectal Cancer. PLoS One 6(11):e27301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lo Re G, Galia M, Bartolotta TV, Runza G, Taibbi A, Lagalla R, De Maria M, Midiri M (2007) Forty-slice MDCT enteroclysis: evaluation after oral administration of isotonic solution in Crohn’s disease. Radiol Med 112(6):787–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Madureira AJ (2004) The comb sign. Radiology 230(3):783–784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mang T, Maier A, Plank C, Mueller-Mang C, Herold C, Schima W (2007) Pitfalls in multi-detector row CT colonography: a systematic approach. Radiographics 27(2):431–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Marin D, Nelson RC, Schindera ST, Richard S, Youngblood RS, Yoshizumi TT, Samei E (2010) Low-tube-voltage, high-tube-current multidetector abdominal CT: improved image quality and decreased radiation dose with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm–initial clinical experience. Radiology 254(1):145–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McKeown-Eyssen G (1994) Epidemiology of colorectal cancer revisited: are serum triglycerides and/or plasma glucose associated with risk? Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 3(8):687–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Minordi LM, Vecchioli A, Poloni G, Bonomo L (2007) CT enteroclysis: multidetector technique (MDCT) versus single-detector technique (SDCT) in patients with suspected small-bowel Crohn’s disease. Radiol Med 112(8):1188–1200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Moschetta M, Stabile Ianora AA, Pedote P, Scardapane A, Angelelli G (2009) Prognostic value of multidetector computed tomography in bowel infarction. Radiol Med 114(5):780–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nagamata H, Inadama E, Arihiro S, Matsuoka M, Torii A, Fukuda K (2002) The usefulness of MDCT in Crohn’s disease. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 99(11):1317–1325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Nagata K, Okawa T, Honma A, Endo S, Kudo SE, Yoshida H (2009) Full-laxative versus minimum-laxative fecal-tagging CT colonography using 64-detector row CT: prospective blinded comparison of diagnostic performance, tagging quality, and patient acceptance. Acad Radiol 16(7):780–789, Epub 2009 Apr 17Google Scholar
  63. Neri E, Vannozzi F, Vagli P, Bardine A, Bartolozzi C (2006) Time efficiency of CT colonography: 2D vs 3D visualization. Comput Med Imaging Graph 30(3):175–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Neri E, Faggioni L, Regge D, Vagli P, Turini F, Cerri F, Picano E, Giusti S, Bartolozzi C (2010) CT Colonography: role of a second reader CAD paradigm in the initial training of radiologists. Eur J Radiol (Epub ahead of print)Google Scholar
  65. Neri E, Vagli P, Turini F, Cerri F, Faggioni L, Angeli S, Cini L, Bartolozzi C (2010b) Post-surgical follow-up of colorectal cancer: role of contrast-enhanced CT colonography. Abdom Imaging 35(6):669–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Orholm M, Munkholm P, Langholz E, Nielson OH, Sorensen IA, Binder V (1991) Familial occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med 324:84–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Patel B, Mottola J, Sahni VA, Cantisani V, Ertruk M, Friedman S, Bellizzi AM, Marcantonio A, Mortele KJ (2011) MDCT assessment of ulcerative colitis: radiologic analysis with clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic correlation. Abdom Imaging (Epub ahead of print)Google Scholar
  68. Pickhardt PJ, Choi JR, Hwang I, Butler JA, Puckett ML, Hildebrandt HA, Wong RK, Nugent PA, Mysliwiec PA, William R, Schindler WR (2003) Computed tomographic virtual colonoscopy to screen for colorectal neoplasia in asymptomatic adults. N Engl J Med 349:2191–2200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pickhardt PJ, Hanson ME, Vanness DJ, Lo JY, Kim DH, Taylor AJ, Winter TC, Hinshaw JL (2008) Unsuspected extracolonic findings at screening CT colonography: clinical and economic impact. Radiology 249(1):151–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Regge D, Laudi C, Galatola G, Della Monica P, Bonelli L, Angelelli G, Asnaghi R, Barbaro B, Bartolozzi C, Bielen D, Boni L, Borghi C, Bruzzi P, Cassinis MC, Galia M, Gallo TM, Grasso A, Hassan C, Laghi A, Martina MC, Neri E, Senore C, Simonetti G, Venturini S, Gandini G (2009) Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomographic colonography for the detection of advanced neoplasia in individuals at increased risk of colorectal cancer. JAMA 301(23):2453–2461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ridereau-Zins C, Aubé C, Luet D, Vielle B, Pilleul F, Dumortier J, Gandon Y, Heresbach D, Beziat C, Bailly F, Debilly M, Carbonnel F, Pierredon-Foulongne MA, Bismuth M, Chretien JM, Lebigot J, Pessaux P, Valette PJ (2010) Assessment of water enema computed tomography: an effective imaging technique for the diagnosis of colon cancer: colon cancer: computed tomography using a water enema. Abdom Imaging 35(4):407–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rizzo A, Pallone F, Monteleone G, Fantini MC (2011) Intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer: a double-edged sword? World J Gastroenterol 17(26):3092–30100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Rockey DC, Paulson E, Niedzwiecki D, Davis W, Bosworth HB, Sanders L, Yee J, Henderson J, Hatten P, Burdick S, Sanyal A, Rubin DT, Sterling M, Akerkar G, Bhutani MS, Binmoeller K, Garvie J, Bini EJ, McQuaid K, Foster WL, Thompson WM, Dachman A, Halvorsen R (2005) Analysis of air contrast barium enema, computed tomographic colonography, and colonoscopy: prospective comparison. Lancet 365(9456):305–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Roggeveen MJ, Tismenetsky M, Shapiro R (2006) Best cases from the AFIP: Ulcerative colitis. Radiographics 26(3):947–951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Scheffel H, Pfammatter T, Wildi S, Bauerfeind P, Marincek B, Alkadhi H (2007) Acute gastrointestinal bleeding: detection of source and etiology with multi-detector-row CT. Eur Radiol 17(6):1555–1565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schmidt S, Felley C, Meuwly JY, Schnyder P, Denys A (2006) CT enteroclysis: technique and clinical applications. Eur Radiol 16(3):648–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Scholer-Dahirel A, Schlabach MR, Loo A, Bagdasarian L, Meyer R, Guo R, Woolfenden S, Yu KK, Markovits J, Killary K, Sonkin D, Yao YM, Warmuth M, Sellers WR, Schlegel R, Stegmeier F, Mosher RE, McLaughlin ME (2011) Maintenance of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)-mutant colorectal cancer is dependent on Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(41):17135–17140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shin SS, Jeong YY, Min JJ, Kim HR, Chung TW, Kang HK (2008) Preoperative staging of colorectal cancer: CT vs. integrated FDG PET/CT. Abdom Imaging 33(3):270–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sivit CJ, Siegel MJ, Applegate KE, Newman KD (2001) Special Focus Session When Appendicitis Is Suspected in Children. RadioGraphics 21:247–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Stewart SL, Wike JM, Kato I, Lewis DR, Michaud F (2006) A population-based study of colorectal cancer histology in the United States, 1998–2001. Cancer 107(Suppl 5):1128–1141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tack D, Bohy P, Perlot I, De Maertelaer V, Alkeilani O, Sourtzis S, Gevenois PA (2005) Suspected acute colon diverticulitis: imaging with low-dose unenhanced multi-detector row CT. Radiology 237(1):189–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Taylor SA, Laghi A, Lefere P, Halligan S, Stoker J (2007) European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR): consensus statement on CT colonography. Eur Radiol 17(2):575–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tew K, Davies RP, Jadun CK, Kew J (2004) MDCT of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Roentgenol 182(2):427–430Google Scholar
  84. Viscido A, Aratari A, Maccioni F, Signore A, Caprilli R (2005) Inflammatory bowel diseases: clinical update of practical guidelines. Nucl Med Commun 26(7):649–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vliegen R, Dresen R, Beets G, Daniels-Gooszen A, Kessels A, van Engelshoven J, Beets-Tan R (2008) The accuracy of Multi-detector row CT for the assessment of tumor invasion of the mesorectal fascia in primary rectal cancer. Abdom Imaging 33(5):604–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Werner A, Diehl SJ, Farag-Soliman M, Düber C (2003) Multi-slice spiral CT in routine diagnosis of suspected acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis: a prospective study of 120 patients. Eur Radiol 13(12):2596–2603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wiesner W, Khurana B, Ji H, Ros PR (2003) CT of acute bowel ischemia. Radiology 226(3):635–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Woodward JM, Sanders DS, Keighley MR, Allan RN (1998) Ischaemic enterocolitis (complicating idiopathic dysautonomia). Gut 43:285–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yee J, Kumar NN, Hung RK, Akerkar GA, Kumar PR, Wall SD ( 2003) Comparison of supine and prone scanning separately and in combination at CT colonography. Radiology 226(3):653–661(Epub 2003 Jan 15)Google Scholar
  90. Yildirim E, Karagülle E, Kirbaş I, Türk E, Hasdoğan B, Tekşam M, Coşkun M (2008) Alvarado scores and pain onset in relation to multislice CT findings in acute appendicitis. Diagn Interv Radiol 14(1):14–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Yoon W, Jeong YY, Kim JK (2006) Acute gastrointestinal bleeding: contrast-enhanced MDCT. Abdom Imaging 31(1):1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zalis ME, Barish MA, Choi JR, Dachman AH, Fenlon HM, Ferrucci JT, Glick SN, Laghi A, Macari M, McFarland EG, Morrin MM, Pickhardt PJ, Soto J (2005) Working Group on Virtual Colonoscopy. CT colonography reporting and data system: a consensus proposal. Radiology 236(1):3–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zhang HM, Guo W, Liu GF, An DH, Gao SH, Sun LB, Yang HS (2011) Colonic polyps: application value of computer-aided detection in computed tomographic colonography. Chin Med J (Engl) 124(3):380–384Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emanuele Neri
    • 1
  • Annalisa Mantarro
    • 1
  • Rossella Scandiffio
    • 1
  • Pietro Bemi
    • 1
  • Lorenzo Faggioni
    • 1
  • Carlo Bartolozzi
    • 1
  1. 1.Diagnostic and Interventional RadiologyUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations