Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Pancreatic emergencies can be categorized as traumatic and non-traumatic, with the latter mainly caused by inflammation. Both acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) can indicate the need for emergency imaging. As the detection of postoperative complications also requires immediate imaging, postoperative imaging findings are discussed in a separate section of this chapter.


Acute Pancreatitis Chronic Pancreatitis Pancreatic Duct Acute Pancreatitis Severe Acute Pancreatitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alpern MB, Sandler MA, Kellman GM et al (1985) Chronic pancreatitis: ultrasonic features. Radiology 155(1):215–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Balthazar EJ (2002) Acute pancreatitis: assessment of severity with clinical and CT evaluation. Radiology 223(3):603–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bollen TL, van Santvoort HC, Besseling MGH et al (2007a) Update on acute pancreatitis: ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging features. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 28(5):371–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bollen TL, Besselink MG, van Santvoort HC et al (2007b) Toward an update of the atlanta classification on acute pancreatitis: review of new and abandoned terms. Pancreas 35(2):107–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bradley EL, 3rd (1993) A clinically based classification system for acute pancreatitis. In: Summary of the international symposium on acute pancreatitis, Atlanta, Ga, 11–13 Sept 1992. Arch Surg 128(5): 586–590Google Scholar
  6. Bradley EL 3rd, Young PR Jr, Chang MC et al (1998) Diagnosis and initial management of blunt pancreatic trauma: guidelines from a multiinstitutional review. Ann Surg 227(6):861–869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Braganza JM, Lee SH et al (2011) Chronic pancreatitis. Lancet 377(9772):1184–1197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Frossard JL, Steer ML et al (2008) Acute pancreatitis. Lancet 371(9607):143–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fukukura Y, Fujiyoshi F, Sasaki M et al (2002) Pancreatic duct: morphologic evaluation with MR cholangiopancreatography after secretin stimulation. Radiology 222(3):674–680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Greenlee T, Murphy K (1984) Amylase isoenzymes in the evaluation of trauma patients. Am Surg 50(12):637–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gupta A, Stuhlfaut JW, Fleming KW et al (2004) Blunt trauma of the pancreas and biliary tract: a multimodality imaging approach to diagnosis. Radiographics 24(5):1381–1395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Heitsch RC, Knutson CO, Fulton RL et al (1976) Delineation of critical factors in the treatment of pancreatic trauma. Surgery 80(4):523–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ichikawa T, Sou H, Araki T et al (2001) Duct-penetrating sign at MRCP: usefulness for differentiating inflammatory pancreatic mass from pancreatic carcinomas. Radiology 221(1):107–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jurkovich GJ (2000) Duodenum and pancreas. In: Mattox KL, Feliciano DV, Moore EE (eds) Trauma. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 735–762Google Scholar
  15. Körner M, Krötz MM, Degenhart C et al (2008) Current role of emergency US in patients with major trauma. Radiographics 28(1):225–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Leyendecker JR, Elsayes KM, Gratz B, Brown JJ (2002) MR cholangiopancreatography: spectrum of pancreatic duct abnormalities. AJR Am J Roentgenol 179(6):1465–1471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Linsenmaier U, Wirth S, Reiser M et al (2008) Diagnosis and classification of pancreatic and duodenal injuries in emergency radiology. Radiographics 28(6):1591–1602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P, DiMagno EP et al (1993) Pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. International Pancreatitis Study Group. N Engl J Med 328(20):1433–1437Google Scholar
  19. Lucas CE, Ledgerwood AM (1975) Factors influencing outcome after blunt duodenal injury. J Trauma 15(10):839–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Luetmer PH, Stephens DH, Ward EM (1989) Chronic pancreatitis: reassessment with current CT. Radiology 171(2):353–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Miller FH, Keppke AL, Wadhwa A et al (2004) MRI of pancreatitis and its complications: part 2, chronic pancreatitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 183(6):1645–1652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Mitchell RM, Byrne MF, Baillie J (2003) Pancreatitis. Lancet 361(9367):1447–1455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moore EE, Cogbill TH, Jurkovich GJ et al (1990) Organ injury scaling, II: pancreas, duodenum, small bowel, colon, and rectum. J Trauma 30(11):1427–1429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mortele KJ, Lemmerling M, de Hemptinne B et al (2000) Postoperative findings following the Whipple procedure: determination of prevalence and morphologic abdominal CT features. Eur Radiol 10(1):123–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mortele KJ, Wiesner W, Intriere L et al (2004) A modified CT severity index for evaluating acute pancreatitis: improved correlation with patient outcome. AJR Am J Roentgenol 183(5):1261–1265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Rekhi S, Anderson SW, Rhea JT et al (2010) Imaging of blunt pancreatic trauma. Emerg Radiol 17(1):13–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Scialpi M, Scaglione M, Volterani L et al (2005) Imaging evaluation of post pancreatic surgery. Eur J Radiol 53(3):417–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shanbhogue AK, Fasih N, Surabhi V et al (2009) A clinical and radiologic review of uncommon types and causes of pancreatitis. Radiographics 29(4):1003–1026PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Smego DR, Richardson JD, Flint LM (1985) Determinants of outcome in pancreatic trauma. J Trauma 25(8):771–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Soto JA, Alvarez O, Munera F et al (2001) Traumatic disruption of the pancreatic duct: diagnosis with MR pancreatography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 176(1):175–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Steer ML, Waxman I, Freedman S (1995) Chronic pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 332(22):1482–1490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tamura R, Ishibashi T, Takahashi S (2006) Chronic pancreatitis: MRCP versus ERCP for quantitative caliber measurement and qualitative evaluation. Radiology 238(3):920–928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Venkatesh SK, Wan JM (2008) CT of blunt pancreatic trauma: a pictorial essay. Eur J Radiol 67(2):311–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wallace MB, Hawes RH (2001) Endoscopic ultrasound in the evaluation and treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas 23(1):26–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Whitcomb DC (2006) Clinical practice. Acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 354(20):2142–2150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. White PH, Benfield JR (1972) Amylase in the management of pancreatic trauma. Arch Surg 105(2):158–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical RadiologyUniversity Hospital LMU MunichMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations