Histology of Normal Bone and Bone Marrow, and Their Main Disorders

  • Reiner Bartl
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


The unique attraction of a bone and bone marrow biopsy is that it allows direct visualisation of bone and its cells, as well as the bone marrow, i.e., haematopoiesis and all elements of the stromal compartment. The trephine biopsy has also some main advantages over the aspirate specimens. The most important is to enable examination of the topographic distribution of the cellular constituents of the marrow, their relationships to the bone trabeculae and an absolute assessment of cellularity. Furthermore in diseases which produce fibrosis, an aspirate often fails to produce an adequate diagnostic specimen (a “dry tap”). The procedure of taking a trephine biopsy (“Jamshidi needle”) is relatively simple and is accomplished without complications in the vast majority of cases. Modern techniques of fixation, embedding and staining for conventional histology as well as immunohistology and histomorphometry enable accurate assessment of bone and bone marrow structure, architecture and cells. Today bone and bone marrow biopsies are widely used for investigation of unclear and malignant conditions of bone and bone marrow.


Bone Marrow Trabecular Bone Osteogenesis Imperfecta Bone Marrow Biopsy Normal Bone Marrow 
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Books Dealing With Bone and Bone Marrow Histology

  1. Bartl R (1998) Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration for diagnosis of multiple myeloma. In: Malpas J, Bergsagel D, Kyle R, Anderson K (eds) Myeloma: biology and management. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 89–121Google Scholar
  2. Bartl R, Frisch B (1993) Biopsy of bone in internal medicine. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartl R, Frisch B, Burkhardt R (1982) Bone marrow biopsies revisited. A new dimension for haematologic malignancies. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  4. Burkhardt R (1971) Bone marrow and bone tissue. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  5. Duhamel G (1974) Histopathologie Clinique de la Moelle Osseuse. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  6. Frisch B, Bartl R (1990) Atlas of bone marrow pathology. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  7. Frisch B, Bartl R (1999) Biopsy interpretation of bone and bone marrow. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Frisch B, Lewis SM, Burkhardt R, Bartl R (1985) Biopsy pathology of bone and bone marrow. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Gatter K, Brown D (1997) An illustrated guide to bone marrow diagnosis. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  10. Krause JR (1981) Bone marrow biopsy. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  11. Rywlin AM (1976) Histopathology of the bone marrow. Little Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center of OsteoporosisMunichGermany

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