Cardiac MRI Physics

Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


This chapter addresses the use of MRI and to a lesser extent CT in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary hypertension. The basics of pulmonary hypertension will be addressed, including epidemiology and treatment strategies. Then different MRI techniques will be discussed in the context of their relevance to pulmonary hypertension. Finally the role of CT in pulmonary hypertension will be discussed. By the end of the chapter the reader should have a better understanding of how to use cross-sectional imaging in pulmonary hypertension.


Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Transverse Magnetization Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging Double Inversion Recovery Spatial Encode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bogaert J, Kuzo R, Dymarkowski S, Janssen L, Celis I, Budts W, Gewillig M (2000) Follow-up of patients with previous treatment for coarctation of the thoracic aorta: comparison between contrast-enhanced MR angiography and fast spin-echo MR imaging. Eur Radiol 10:1847–1854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Botnar RM, Stuber M, Danias PG, Kissinger KV, Manning WJ (1999) Improved coronary artery definition with T2-weighted, free-breathing, three-dimensional coronary MRA. Circulation 99:3139–3148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Chrispin A, Small P, Rutter N, Coupland RE, Doyle M, Chapman B, Coxon R, Guilfoyle D, Cawley M, Mansfield P (1986) Echo planar imaging of normal and abnormal connections of the heart and great arteries. Pediatr Radiol 16:289–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ding S, Wolff SD, Epstein FH (1998) Improved coverage in dynamic contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI using interleaved gradient-echo EPI. Magn Reson Med Off J Soc Magn Reson Med/Soc Magn Reson Med 39:514–519Google Scholar
  5. Fenchel M, Saleh R, Dinh H, Lee MH, Nael K, Krishnam M, Ruehm SG, Miller S, Child J, Finn JP (2007) Juvenile and adult congenital heart disease: time-resolved 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography. Radiology 244:399–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Finn JP, Edelman RR (1993) Black-blood and segmented k-space magnetic resonance angiography. Magn Reson Imaging Clin North Am 1:349–357Google Scholar
  7. Greenman RL, Shirosky JE, Mulkern RV, Rofsky NM (2003) Double inversion black-blood fast spin-echo imaging of the human heart: a comparison between 1.5T and 3.0T. J Magn Reson Imaging JMRI 17:648–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Griswold MA, Jakob PM, Heidemann RM, Nittka M, Jellus V, Wang J, Kiefer B, Haase A (2002) Generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (GRAPPA). Magn Reson Med Off J Soc Magn Reson Med/Soc Magn Reson Med 47:1202–1210Google Scholar
  9. Hansen MS, Atkinson D, Sorensen TS (2008) Cartesian SENSE and k-t SENSE reconstruction using commodity graphics hardware. Magn Reson Med Off J Soc Magn Reson Med/Soc Magn Reson Med 59:463–468Google Scholar
  10. Hansen MS, Baltes C, Tsao J, Kozerke S, Pruessmann KP, Eggers H (2006) k-t BLAST reconstruction from non-Cartesian k-t space sampling. Magn Reson Med Off J Soc Magn Reson Med/Soc Magn Reson Med 55:85–91Google Scholar
  11. Kaldoudi E, Williams SC, Barker GJ, Tofts PS (1993) A chemical shift selective inversion recovery sequence for fat-suppressed MRI: theory and experimental validation. Magn Reson Imaging 11:341–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Keegan J, Gatehouse PD, Taylor AM, Yang GZ, Jhooti P, Firmin DN (1999) Coronary artery imaging in a 0.5-Tesla scanner: implementation of real-time, navigator echo-controlled segmented k-space FLASH and interleaved-spiral sequences. Magn Reson Med Off J Soc Magn Reson Med/Soc Magn Reson Med 41:392–399Google Scholar
  13. Kim RJ, Wu E, Rafael A, Chen EL, Parker MA, Simonetti O, Klocke FJ, Bonow RO, Judd RM (2000) The use of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify reversible myocardial dysfunction. N Engl J Med 343:1445–1453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kolbitsch C, Prieto C, Smink J, Schaeffter T (2011) Highly efficient whole-heart imaging using radial phase encoding-phase ordering with automatic window selection. Magn Reson Med 66(4):1008--1018Google Scholar
  15. Korperich H, Gieseke J, Barth P, Hoogeveen R, Esdorn H, Peterschroder A, Meyer H, Beerbaum P (2004) Flow volume and shunt quantification in pediatric congenital heart disease by real-time magnetic resonance velocity mapping: a validation study. Circulation 109:1987–1993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lanzer P, Botvinick EH, Schiller NB, Crooks LE, Arakawa M, Kaufman L, Davis PL, Herfkens R, Lipton MJ, Higgins CB (1984) Cardiac imaging using gated magnetic resonance. Radiology 150:121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lenz GW, Haacke EM, White RD (1989) Retrospective cardiac gating: a review of technical aspects and future directions. Magn Reson Imaging 7:445–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Muthurangu V, Lurz P, Critchely JD, Deanfield JE, Taylor AM, Hansen MS (2008) Real-time assessment of right and left ventricular volumes and function in patients with congenital heart disease by using high spatiotemporal resolution radial k-t SENSE. Radiology 248:782–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nordmeyer J, Gaudin R, Tann OR, Lurz PC, Bonhoeffer P, Taylor AM, Muthurangu V (2010) MRI may be sufficient for noninvasive assessment of great vessel stents: an in vitro comparison of MRI, CT, and conventional angiography. Am J Roentgenol 195:865–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pruessmann KP, Weiger M, Boesiger P (2001) Sensitivity encoded cardiac MRI. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson Off J Soc Cardiovasc Magn Reson 3:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pruessmann KP, Weiger M, Scheidegger MB, Boesiger P (1999) SENSE: sensitivity encoding for fast MRI. Magn Reson Med Off J Soc Magn Reson Med/Soc Magn Reson Med 42:952–962Google Scholar
  22. Schar M, Kozerke S, Fischer SE, Boesiger P (2004) Cardiac SSFP imaging at 3 Tesla. Magn Reson Med 51:799–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Scheffler K, Lehnhardt S (2003) Principles and applications of balanced SSFP techniques. Eur Radiol 13:2409–2418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Simonetti OP, Finn JP, White RD, Laub G, Henry DA (1996) “Black blood” T2-weighted inversion-recovery MR imaging of the heart. Radiology 199:49–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Sorensen TS, Korperich H, Greil GF, Eichhorn J, Barth P, Meyer H, Pedersen EM, Beerbaum P (2004) Operator-independent isotropic three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging for morphology in congenital heart disease: a validation study. Circulation 110:163–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Steeden JA, Atkinson D, Taylor AM, Muthurangu V (2010a) Assessing vascular response to exercise using a combination of real-time spiral phase contrast MR and noninvasive blood pressure measurements. J Magn Reson Imaging 31:997–1003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Steeden JA, Atkinson D, Taylor AM, Muthurangu V (2010b) Split-acquisition real-time CINE phase-contrast MR flow measurements. Magn Reson Med Off J Soc Magn Reson Med/Soc Magn Reson Med 64:1664–1670Google Scholar
  28. Stehling MK, Holzknecht NG, Laub G, Bohm D, Von Smekal A, Reiser M (1996) Single-shot T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the heart with black blood: preliminary experience. Magma 4:231–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tsao J, Kozerke S, Boesiger P, Pruessmann KP (2005) Optimizing spatiotemporal sampling for k-t BLAST and k-t SENSE: application to high-resolution real-time cardiac steady-state free precession. Magn Reson Med Off J Soc Magn Reson Med/Soc Magn Reson Med 53:1372–1382Google Scholar
  30. Wang Y, Moin K, Akinboboye O, Reichek N (2005) Myocardial first pass perfusion: steady-state free precession versus spoiled gradient echo and segmented echo planar imaging. Magn Reson Med Off J Soc Magn Reson Med/Soc Magn Reson Med 54:1123–1129Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardio-Respiratory UnitGreat Ormond Street Hospital for ChildrenLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Radiology, University Hospital LeuvenKatholieke Universiteit LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations