Dysphagia pp 3-18 | Cite as

Anatomy and Physiology

  • Olle Ekberg
  • Göran Nylander
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


The oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus constitute three anatomically and functionally integrated areas that are involved in swallowing. They are made up of muscular tubes surrounded by cartilages and bones. Swallowing in controlled by the brain stem in the central nervous system where the swallowing centre is located.


Soft Palate Hyoid Bone Thyroid Cartilage Cricoid Cartilage Arytenoid Cartilage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bosma JF (ed) (1973) Fourth symposium on oral sensation and perception: development in the fetus and infant. DHEW publication no. (NIH) 73-546. US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  2. Bosma JF (ed) (1976) Symposium on development of the basicranium. DHEW publication no. (NIH) 76-989. US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  3. Ekberg O, Lindström C (1987) The upper esophageal sphincter area. Acta Radiol 28:173–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ekberg O, Nylander G (1982) Dysfunction of the cricopharyngeal muscle: a cineradiographic study of patients with dysphagia. Radiology 143:481–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ekberg O, Sigurjonsson SV (1982) Movement of the epiglottis during deglutition: a cineradiographic study. Gastrointest Radiol 7:101–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ekberg O, Birch-Iensen M, Lindström C (1986) Mucosal folds in the valleculae. Dysphagia 1:68–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fink BR (1976) The median thyrohyoid “fold”: A nomenclature suggestion. J Anat 122:697–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Fink BR, Demarest RJ (1978) Laryngeal biomechanics. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  9. Jamieson JB (1934) Illustrations of regional anatomy. Livingstone, Edinburgh, Sect 2:44Google Scholar
  10. Miller AJ (1999) The neuroscientific principles of swallowing and dysphagia. Singular Publishing Group, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  11. Perlman AL, Christensen J (1997) Topography and functional anatomy of the swallowing structures. In: Perlman AL, Schulze-Delrieu K (eds) Deglutition and its disorders: anatomy, physiology, clinical diagnosis, and management. Singular Publishing Group, San Diego, pp 15–42Google Scholar
  12. Williams PL, Warwich R, Dyson M, Bannister LH (eds) (1989) Gray’s anatomy, 37th edn. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  13. Zaino C, Jacobson HG, Lepow H, Ozturk CH (1970) The pharyngoesophageal sphincter. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Diagnostic Centre of Imaging and Functional MedicineSkåne University HospitalMalmöSweden

Personalised recommendations