Advertisement

Heart Muscle Diseases

  • J. Bogaert
  • A. M. Taylor
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Heart muscle diseases or cardiomyopathies represent an important and heterogeneous group of cardiac diseases. Imaging is an essential pillar in assessment of the phenotypic expression of this group of diseases, indispensable for disease classification, obligatory to evaluate the degree of dysfunction, and appealing for risk stratification. This chapter focuses on the emerging role of MRI to assess this complex group of diseases. Since MRI provides unique information on myocardial tissue characteristics and functional properties, the focus is not only on the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, follow-up of disease progression, and evaluation of response to treatment of cardiomyopathies but this technique is increasingly being used for risk stratification of potential harmful complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death.

Keywords

Sudden Cardiac Death Diastolic Dysfunction Myocardial Fibrosis Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Cardiac Sarcoidosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abarra S, Migrino RQ, Sosnovik D, Leichter JA, Brady TJ, Holmvang G (2004) Value of fat suppression in the MRI evaluation of suspected arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. AJR 182:587–591Google Scholar
  2. Abdel-Aty H, Boyé P, Zagrosek A et al (2005) Diagnostic performance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with suspected acute myocarditis. Comparison of different approaches. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:1815–1822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdel-Aty H, Siegle N, Natusch A et al (2008) Myocardial tissue characterization in systemic lupus erythematosus: value of a comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance approach. Lupus 17:561–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Abe Y, Kondo M (2002) Apical ballooning of the left ventricle: a distinct entity? Heart 89:974–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Abe Y, Kondo M, Matsuoka R, Araki M, Dohyama K, Tanio H (2003) Assessment of clinical features in transient left ventricular apical ballooning. J Am Coll Cardiol 41:737–742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Abelmann WH, Lorell BH (1989) The challenge of cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 13:1219–1239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Adabag AS, Maron BJ, Appelbaum E et al (2008) Occurrence and frequency of arrhythmias in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in relation to delayed enhancement on cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Am Coll Cardiol 51:1369–1374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Akashi Y, Nakazawa K, Sakakibara M, Miyake F, Sasaka (2002) Reversible left ventricular dysfunction “Takotsubo” cardiomyopathy related to catecholamine cardiotoxicity. J Electrocardiol 35:351–356Google Scholar
  9. Ako J, Kozaki K, Yoshizumi M, Ouchi Y (2002) Transient left ventricular apical ballooning without coronary artery stenosis: a form of stunning-like phenomenon? J Am Coll Cardiol 39:741–742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aletras AH, Tilak GS, Hsu LY, Arai AE (2011) Heterogeneity of intramural function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: mechanistic insights from late gadolinium enhancement and high-resolution DENSE strain maps. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 4:425–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Allenore Y, Vignaux O, Arnaud L et al (2006) Effects of corticosteroids and immunosuppressors on idiopathic inflammatory myopathy related myocarditis evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Rheum Dis 65:249–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alsaileek AA, Syed I, Seward JB, Julsrud P (2008) Myocardial fibrosis of left ventricle: magnetic resonance imaging in noncompaction. J Magn Reson Imaging 27:621–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Anderson RH (2008) Ventricular non-compaction—a frequently ignored finding? Eur Heart J 29:10–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Anderson LJ, Holden S, Davis B et al (2001) Cardiovascular T2-star (T2*) magnetic resonance for the early diagnosis of myocardial iron overload. Eur Heart J 22:2171–2179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Angelini A, Melacini P, Barbero F, Thiene G (1999) Evolutionary persistence of spongy myocardium in humans. Circulation 99:2475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Aretz HT, Billingham ME, Edwards WD et al (1986) Myocarditis: a histopathologic definition and classification. Am J Cardiovasc Pathol 1:3–14Google Scholar
  17. Arrivé L, Assayag P, Russ G, Najmark D, Brochet E, Nahum H (1994) MRI and cine MRI of asymmetric septal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Comput Assist Tomogr 18:376–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Assomull RG, Prasad SK, Lyne J et al (2006) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance, fibrosis, and prognosis in dilated cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 48:1977–1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Assomull RG, Lyne JC, Keenan N et al (2007) The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients presenting with chest pain, raised Troponin, and unobstructed coronary arteries. Eur Heart J 28:1242–1249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Austin BA, Tang WH, Rodriguez ER et al (2009) Delayed hyper-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging provides incremental diagnostic and prognostic utility in suspected cardiac amyloidosis. J Am Coll Cardiol Img 2:1369–1377Google Scholar
  21. Awtry EH, Philippides GJ (2010) Alcohol and cocaine-associated cardiomyopathies. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 52:289–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Baccouche H, Mahrholdt H, Meinhardt G et al (2009) Diagnostic synergy of non-invasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance and invasive endomyocardial biopsy in troponin-positive patients without coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J 30:2869–2879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Baruteau AE, Leurent G, Martins RP et al (2010) Peripartum cardiomyopathy in the era of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: first results and perspectives. Int J Cardiol 144:143–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Basavarajaiah S, Boraita A, Whyte G, Wilson M, Carby L, Shah A, Sharma S (2008a) Ethnic differences in left ventricular remodeling in highly-trained athletes. J Am Coll Cardiol 51:2256–2262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Basavarajaiah S, Wilson M, Whyte G, Shah A, McKenna W, Sharma S (2008b) Prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in highly trained athletes. J Am Coll Cardiol 51:1033–1039PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Basso C, Thiene G, Corrado D, Buja G, Melacini P, Nava A (2000) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and sudden cardiac death in the young: pathologic evidence of myocardial ischemia. Hum Pathol 31:988–998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Basso C, Corrado D, Marcus FI, Nava A, Thiene G (2009) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Lancet 373:1289–1300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Beer M, Weidemann F, Breunig F, Knoll A et al (2006) Impact of enzyme replacement therapy on cardiac morphology and function and late enhancement in Fabry’s cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 97:1515–1518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Belanger AR, Miller MA, Donthireddi UR, Najovits AJ, Goldman ME (2008) New classification scheme of left ventricular noncompaction and correlation with ventricular performance. Am J Cardiol 102:92–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Belenkov Y, Vikhert OA, Belichenko OI, Arabidze GG (1992) Magnetic resonance imaging of cardiac hypertrophy in malignant arterial hypertension. Am J Hypertens 5:195S–199SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bellenger NG, Davies LC, Francis JM, Coats AJS, Pennell DJ (2000) Reduction in sample size for studies of remodeling in heart failure by the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2:271–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bello D, Shah DJ, Farah GM (2003) Gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts reversible myocardial dysfunction and remodeling in patients with heart failure undergoing β-blocker therapy. Circulation 108:1945–1953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bellotti G, Bocchi EA, de Moreas A et al (1996) In vivo detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in hearts of patients with chronic Chagas’ heart disease. Am Heart J 131:301–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Beltrami CA, Finato N, Rocco M et al (1995) The cellular basis of dilated cardiomyopathy in humans. J Mol Cell Cardiol 27:291–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Benson L, Liu P, Olivieri N, Rose V, Freedom R (1989) Left ventricular function in young adults with thalassemia. Circulation 80:274Google Scholar
  36. Bergler KJ, Sochor H, Stanek G, Globits S, Ullrich R, Glogar D (1993) Indium 111-monoclonal antimyosin antibody and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of acute Lyme myopericarditis. Arch Intern Med 153:2696–2700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Berkowitz SJ, Macedo R, Malayeri AA et al (2009) Axial black blood turbo spin echo imaging of the right ventricle. Magn Reson Med 61:307–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Bhatia SR, Tu JV, Lee DS et al (2006) Outcome of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in a population-based study. N Engl J Med 355:260–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Biondi B, Kahaly GJ (2010) Cardiovascular involvement in patients with different causes of hyperthyroidism. Nat Rev Endocrinol 6:431–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bleyer WA (1990) The impact of childhood cancer on the United States and the world. CA Cancer J Clin 40:355–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bluemke DA, Kronmal RA, Lima JAC, Liu K, Olson J, Burke GL, Folsom AR (2008) The relationship of left ventricular mass and geometry to incident cardiovascular events. J Am Coll Cardiol 52:2148–2155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bogaert J, Francone M (2009) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 11:14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bogaert J, Goldstein M, Tannouri F, Golzarian J, Dymarkowski S (2003) Late myocardial enhancement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Roentgenol AJR 180:981–985Google Scholar
  44. Bogaert J, Taylor AM, Van Kerckhove F, Dymarkowski S (2004) Use of inversion-recovery contrast-enhanced MRI technique for cardiac imaging: spectrum of diseases. Am J Roentgenol AJR 182:609–615Google Scholar
  45. Bogun FM, Desjardins B, Good E et al (2009) Delayed-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Utility for identifying the ventricular arrhythmia substrate. J Am Coll Cardiol 53:1138–1145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Borreguero LJJ, Corti R, de Soria RF, Osende JI, Fuster V, Badimon JJ (2004) Diagnosis of isolated noncompaction of the myocardium by magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 105:e177–e178Google Scholar
  47. Boudina S, Abel ED (2010) Diabetic cardiomyopathy, causes and effects. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 11:31–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Braunwald E, Kloner RA (1982) The stunned myocardium: prolonged, postischemic ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 66:1146–1156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Brigden W (1957) The noncoronary cardiomyopathies. Lancet II:1179–1243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Bruder O, Schneider S, Nothnagel D et al (2009) EuroCMR (European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance) registry: result of the German pilot phase. J Am Coll Cardiol 54:147–1466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Bruder O, Wagner A, Jensen CJ et al (2010) Myocardial scar visualized by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging predicts major adverse events in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 56:875–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Bulkley BH, Weisfeldt ML, Hutchins GM (1977) Asymmetric septal hypertrophy and myocardial fiber disarray. Features of normal, developing and malformed hearts. Circulation 56:292–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Bulut A, Rav-Acha M, Aydin O et al (2009) “Inverted Tako-Tsubo”: transient apical-sparing cardiomyopathy. Int J Cardiol 134:e35–e38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Burke AP, Farb A, Tashko G, Virmani R (1998) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and fatty replacement of the right ventricular myocardium. Are they different diseases? Circulation 97:1571–1580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Buser PT, Wagner S, Auffermann W et al (1990) Three-dimensional analysis of the regional contractility of the normal and the cardiomyopathic left ventricle using cine-magnetic resonance imaging (in German). Z Kardiol 79:573–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Captur G, Nihoyannopoulos P (2010) Left ventricular non-compaction: genetic heterogeneity, diagnosis and clinical course. Int J Cardiol 140:145–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Carlson MD, White RD, Trohman RG et al (1994) Right ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia: detection of previously unrecognized anatomic abnormalities using cine magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 24:720–727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Carpenter JP, He T, Kirk P et al (2011) On T2* magnetic resonance and cardiac iron. Circulation 123:1519–1528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Casolo GC, Poggesi L, Boddi M et al (1987) ECG-gated magnetic resonance imaging in right ventricular dysplasia. Am Heart J 113:1245–1248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Casolo GC, Trotta F, Rostagno C et al (1989) Detection of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by magnetic resonance imaging. Am Heart J 117:468–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Castillo E, Tandri H, Rodriguez R et al (2004) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: ex vivo and in vivo fat detection with black-blood MR imaging. Radiology 232:38–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Chan PCK, Liu P, Cronin C, Heathcote J, Uldall R (1992) The use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in monitoring total body iron in hemodialysis patients with hemosiderosis treated with erythropoietin and phlebotomy. Am J Kidney Dis 19:484–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Chandra M, Silverman ME, Oshinski J, Pettigrew R (1996a) Diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis aided by MRI. Chest 110:562–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Chandra M, Pettigrew RI, Eley JW, Oshinski JN, Guyton RA (1996b) Cine-MRI-aided endomyocardectomy in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg 62:1856–1858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Charron P, Arad M, Arbustini E et al (2010) Genetic counseling and testing in cardiomyopathies: a position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. Eur Heart J 31:2715–2726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Cheong BYC, Muthupillai R, Nemeth M et al (2009) The utility of delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging for identifying nonischemic myocardial fibrosis in asymptomatic patients with biopsy-proven systemic sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 26:39–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Choudbury L, Mahrholdt H, Wagner A et al (2002) Myocardial scarring in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 40:2156–2164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Coelho-Filho OR, Mongeon F-P, Mitchell RN et al (2010) Löffler endocarditis presenting with recurrent polymorphic ventricular tachycardia diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonanc imaging. Circulation 122:96–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Cooper LT (2009) Myocarditis. N Engl J Med 360:1526–1538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Cooper LT, Baughman KL, Feldman AM et al (2007) The role of endomyocardial biopsy in the management of cardiovascular disease. A scientific statement from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the European Society of Cardiology. Circulation 116:2216–2233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Corrado D, Fontaine G, Marcus FI et al (2000) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Need for an international registry. Circulation 101:e101–e106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Crilley JG, Boehm EA, Blair E et al (2003) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to sarcomeric gene mutations is characterized by impaired energy metabolism irrespective of the degree of hypertrophy. J Am Coll Cardiol 41:1776–1782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Cuspidi C, Lonati L, Sampieri L, Leonetti G, Zanchetti A (1997) Physiological versus pathological hypertrophy. The athlete and the hypertensive. In: Zanchetti A et al (eds) Hypertension and the heart. Plenum Press, New York, pp 145–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. D’Silva SA, Kohli A, Dalvi BV, Kale PA (1992) MRI in right ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis. Am Heart J 123:1390–1392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Dalal D, Tandri H, Judge DP et al (2009) Morphologic variants of familial arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. A genetics-magnetic resonance imaging correlation study. J Am Coll Cardiol 53:1289–1299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Davlouros PA, Danias PG, Karatza AA, Kiaffas MG, Alexopoulos D (2009) Saw-tooth cardiomyopathy. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 16:54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Dawson DK, Maceira AM, Raj VJ, Graham C, Pennell DJ, Kilner PJ (2011) Regional thicknesses and thickening of compacted and trabeculated myocardial layers of the normal left ventricle studied by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 4:139–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. De Cobelli F, Pieroni M, Esposito A et al (2006) Delayed gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with chronic myocarditis presenting with heart failure or recurrent arrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol 47:1649–1654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. de Souza F, Altenburg R, Curi Gismondi O, Cunha Neto SH, de Mattos MA (2008) Tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy and extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma: case report and literature review. Clin Res Cardiol 97:397–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Debl K, Djavidani B, Buchner S et al (2006) Delayed hyperenhancement in magnetic resonance imaging of left ventricular hypertrophy caused by aortic stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: visualization of focal fibrosis. Heart 92:1447–1451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Dec GW, Fuster V (1994) Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 331:1564–1574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Dennert RM, van Paassen P, Schalla S et al (2010) Cardiac involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 62:627–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Desmet WJR, Adriaenssens BFM, Dens JAY (2003) Apical ballooning of the left ventricle: first series in white patients. Eur Heart J 89:1027–1031Google Scholar
  84. Dewey FE, Rosenthal D, Murphy DJ, Froelicher VF, Ashley EA (2008) Does size matter. Clinical applications of scaling cardiac size and function for body size. Circulation 117:2279–2287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Di Bella G, Masci PG, Ganame J, Dymarkowski S, Bogaert J (2008) Liquefaction necrosis of the mitral annulus calcification: detection and characterization with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 117:e292–e294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Di Bella G, Minutoli F, Mazzeo A et al (2010) MRI of cardiac involvement in transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy. AJR 195:W394–W399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Dodd JD, Holmvang G, Hoffmann U et al (2008) Quantification of left ventricular noncompaction and trabecular delayed hyperenhancement with cardiac MRI: correlation with clinical severity. AJR 189:974–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Dong SJ, MacGregor JH, Crawley AP et al (1994) Left ventricular wall thickness and regional systolic function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 90:1200–1209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Dorn GWII (2007) The fuzzy logic of physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Hypertension 49:962–970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Durand E, Mousseaux E, Coste P et al (2008) Non-surgical septal myocardial reduction by coil embolization for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: early and 6 months follow-up. Eur Heart J 29:348–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Edwards NC, Ferro CJ, Townend JN, Steeds RP (2007) Myocardial disease in systemic vasculitis and autoimmune disease detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Rheumatology 46:1208–1209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Eidem BW (2008) Identification of anthracycline cardiotoxicity: left ventricular ejection fraction is not enough. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 21:1290–1292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Eitel I, Behrendt F, Schindler K et al (2008) Differential diagnosis of suspected apical ballooning syndrome using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Heart J 29:2651–2659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Eitel I, Lücke C, Grothoff M et al (2010) Inflammation in takotsubo cardiomyopathy: insights form cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Radiol 20:422–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Eitel I, von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff F, Bernhardt P et al (2011) Clinical characteristics and cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in stress (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy. JAMA 306:277–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Elkayam U, Akhter MW, Singh H et al (2005) Pregnancy-associated cardiomyopathy. Clinical characteristics and a comparison between early and late presentation. Circulation 111:2050–2055PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Elliott P, Andersson B, Arbustini E et al (2008) Classification of the cardiomyopathies: a position statement from the European Society of Cardiology working group on myocardial and pericardial diseases. Eur Heart J 29:270–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Elshershari H, Okutan V, Celiker A (2001) Isolated noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium. Cardiol Young 11:472–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Esposito A, De Cobelli F, Perseghin G et al (2008) Impaired left ventricular energy metabolism in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is related to the extension of fibrosis at delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Heart 95:228–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Falk RH, Dubrey SW (2010) Amyloid heart disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 52:347–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Feldman AM, McNamara D (2000) Myocarditis. N Engl J Med 343:1388–1398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Fernandez-Golfin C, Pachon M, Corros C et al (2009) Left ventricular trabeculae: quantification in different cardiac diseases and impact on left ventricular morphological and functional parameters assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Med 10:827–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Finsterer J, Stöllberger C (2008) Primary myopathies and the heart. Scand Cardiovasc J 42:9–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Finsterer J, Stöllberger C, Feichtinger H (2002) Histological appearance of left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction. Cardiology 98:162–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Flett AS, Hayward MP, Ashworth MT et al (2010) Equilibrium contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance for the measurement of diffuse myocardial fibrosis. Preliminary validation in humans. Circulation 122:138–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Fontaine G, Fontaliran F, Frank R (1998) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies. Clinical forms and main differential diagnoses. Circulation 97:1532–1535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Forstot JZ, Overlie PA, Neufeld GK, Harmon CE, Forstot SL (1980) Cardiac complications of Wegener’s granulomatosis: a case report of complete heart block and review of the literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum 10:148–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Francone M, Iacucci I, Mangia M, Carbone I (2010) Endomyocardial disease related to idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome: a cardiac magnetic resonance evaluation. Pediatr Cardiol 31:921–922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Frey N, Katus HA, Olson EN, Hill JA (2004) Hypertrophy of the heart. A new therapeutic target? Circulation 109:1580–1589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Friedrich MG, Strohm O, Schulz-Menger J, Marciniak H, Luft FC, Dietz R (1998) Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging visualizes changes in the course of viral myocarditis. Circulation 97:1802–1809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Friedrich MG, Sechtem I, Schulz-Menger J et al (2009) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in myocarditis: a JACC white paper. J Am Coll Cardiol 53:1475–1487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Frishman WH, Del Vecchio A, Sanal S, Ismail A (2003a) Cardiovascular manifestations of substance abuse part 1: cocaine. Heart 5:187–201Google Scholar
  113. Frishman WH, Del Vecchio A, Sanal S, Ismail A (2003b) Cardiovascular manifestations of substance abuse part 2: alcohol, amphetamines, heroin, cannibs, and caffeine. Heart 5:253–271Google Scholar
  114. Fritz J, Solaiyappan M, Tandri H et al (2005) Right ventricle shape and contraction patterns and relation to magnetic resonance imaging findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 29:725–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Fujita N, Duerinckx AJ, Higgins CB (1993) Variation in left ventricular regional wall stress with cine magnetic resonance imaging: normal subjects versus dilated cardiomyopathy. Am Heart J 125:1337–1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Gagliardi MG, Bevilacqua M, Di Renzi P, Picardo S, Passariello R, Marcelletti C (1991) Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of acute myocarditis in infants and children, and comparison with endomyocardial biopsy. Am J Cardiol 68:1089–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Galiuto L, Ranieri De Caterina A, Porfidia A et al (2010) Reversible coronary microvascular dysfunction: a common pathogenetic mechanism in apical ballooning or Tako-Tsubo syndrome. Eur Heart J 31:1319–1327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Ganau A, Devereux RB, Roman MJ (1992) Patterns of left ventricular hypertrophy and geometric remodeling in essential hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 19:1550–1558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Gatzka CD (2002) Left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac imaging and cardiac electric activity. J Hypertens 20:2153–2156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Gaudio C, Tanzilli G, Mazzarotto P et al (1991) Comparison of left ventricular ejection fraction by magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide ventriculography in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 67:411–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Gaudio C, Pelliccia F, Tanzilli G, Mazzarotto P, Cianfrocca C, Marino B (1992) Magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of apical hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Clin Cardiol 15:164–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Germans T, Wilde AAM, Dijkmans PA et al (2006) Structural abnormalities of the inferoseptal left ventricular wall detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in carriers of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutations. J Am Coll Cardiol 48:2518–2523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Glanzmann C, Kaufmann P, Jenni R et al (1998) Cardiac risk after mediastinal irradiation for Hodgkin’s disease. Radiother Oncol 46:51–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Globits S, Bergler KJ, Stanek G, Ullrich R, Glogar D (1994) Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of acute Lyme carditis. Cardiology 85:415–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Globits S, Kreiner G, Frank H et al (1997) Significance of morphological abnormalities detected by MRI in patients undergoing successful ablation of right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia. Circulation 96:2633–2640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Goodfield NER, Bhandari S, Plant WD, Morley-Davies A, Sutherland GR (1995) Cardiac involvement in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Br Heart J 73:110–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Grant SCD, Levy RD, Venning MC, Ward C, Brooks NH (1994) Wegener’s granulomatosis and the heart. Br Heart J 71:82–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Gropler RJ, Beanlands RSB, Dilsizian V et al (2010) Imaging myocardial metabolic remodeling. J Nucl Med 51:88S–101SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Gujja P, Rosing DR, Tripodi DJ, Shizukuda Y (2010) Iron overload cardiomyopathy. Better understanding of an increasing disorder. J Am Coll Cardiol 56:1001–1012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Gutberlet M, Spors B, Thoma T et al (2008) Suspected chronic myocarditis at cardiac MR: diagnostic accuracy and association with immunohistologically detected inflammation and viral persistence. Radiology 246:401–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Hachulla AL, Launay D, Gaxotte V et al (2009) Cardiac magnetic imaging in systemic sclerosis: a cross-sectional observational study of 52 patients. Ann Rheum Dis 68:1878–1884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Haghi D, Athanasiadis A, Papavassiliu T et al (2006) Right ventricular involvement in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 27:2433–2439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Han Y, Peters DC, Dokhan B, Manning WJ (2009) Shorter difference between myocardium and blood optimal inversion time suggests diffuse fibrosis in dilated cardiomyopathy. J Magn Reson Imaging 30:967–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Hansch A, Pfeil A, Rzanny R, Neumann T, Kaiser WA (2009) First-pass myocardial perfusion abnormalities in Churg-Strauss syndrome with cardiac involvement. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 25:501–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Hardy P, Henkelman RM (1989) Transverse relaxation rate enhancement caused by magnetic particles. Magn Reson Imaging 7:265–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Harrigan CJ, Appelbaum E, Maron BJ et al (2008) Significance of papillary muscle abnormalities identified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 101:668–673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Harrigan CJ, Peters DC, Gibson CM et al (2011) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: quantification of late gadolinium enhancement with contrast-enhanced cardiovascular MR imaging. Radiology 258:128–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Harris KM, Spirito P, Maron MS et al (2006) Prevalence, clinical profile, and significance of left ventricular remodeling in the end-stage of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 114:216–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Harvey WP, Segal JP, Gurel T (1964) The spectrum of primary myocardial disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 7:17–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Hausse AO, Aggoun Y, Bonnet D et al (2002) Idebenone and reduced cardiac hypertrophy in Friedreich’s ataxia. Heart 87:346–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. He T, Kirk P, Firmin DN et al (2008) Multi-center transferability of a breath-hold T2 technqiue for myocardial iron assessment. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 10:11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Heckbert SR, Post W, Pearson GDN et al (2006) Traditional cardiovascular risk factors in relation to left ventricular mass, volume, and systolic function by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 48:2285–2292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Heidenreich PA, Hancock SL, Vagelos RH, Lee BK, Schnittger I (2005) Diastolic dysfunction after mediastinal irradiation. Am Heart J 150:977–982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Hill JA, Olson EN (2007) Cardiac plasticity. Mechanisms of disease. N Engl J Med 358:1370–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Ho CY, López B, Coelho-Filho OR (2010) Myocardial fibrosis as an early manifestation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 363:552–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Hoedemaekers YM, Caliskan K, Majoor-Krakauer D et al (2007) Cardiac B-myosin heavy chain defects in two families with non-compaction cardiomyopathy: linking non-compaction to hypertrophic, restrictive, and dilated cardiomyopathies. Eur Heart J 28:2732–2737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. HombachV MerkleN, Torzewski J et al (2009) Electrocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging parameters as predictors of a worse outcome in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 30:2011–2018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Huffman C, Wagman G, Fudim M et al (2010) Reversible cardiomyopathies—a review. Transplant Proc 42:3673–3678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Hughes SE, McKenna WJ (2005) New insights into the pathology of inherited cardiomyopathy. Heart 91:257–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Hunold P, Wieneke H, Bruder O et al (2005) Late enhancement: a new feature in MRI of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 7:649–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Huong DL, Wechsler B, Papo T et al (1997) Endomyocardial fibrosis in Behçet’s disease. Ann Rheum Dis 56:205–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Hurst RT, Askew JW, Reuss CS et al (2006) Transient midventricular ballooning syndrome. A new variant. J Am Coll Cardiol 48:579–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Ichinose A, Otani H, Oikawa M et al (2008) MRI of cardiac sarcoidosis: basal and subepicardial localization of myocardial lesions and their effect on left ventricular function. AJR Am J Roentgenol 191:862–869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Iles L, Pfluger H, Phrommintikul A et al (2008) Evaluation of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in heart failure with cardiac magnetic resonance contrast-enhanced T1 mapping. J Am Coll Cardiol 52:1574–1580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Imai H, Kumai T, Sekiya M et al (1992) Left ventricular trabeculae evaluated with MRI in dilated cardiomyopathy and old myocardial infarction. J Cardiol 22:83–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Jacquier A, Thuny F, Jop B et al (2010) Measurement of trabeculated left ventricular mass using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of left ventricular non-compaction. Eur Heart J 31:1098–1104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Jain A, Shehata ML, Stuber M et al (2010) Prevalence of left ventricular regional dysfunction in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. A tagged MRI study. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 3:290–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Jefferies JL, Towbin JA (2010) Dilated cardiomyopathy. Lancet 375:752–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Jellis C, Martin J, Narula J, Marwick TH (2010) Assessment of nonischemic myocardial fibrosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 56:89–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Jensen PD, Jensen FT, Christensen T, Heickendorff L, Jensen LG, Ellegaard J (2001) Indirect evidence for the potential ability of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the myocardial iron content in patients with transfusional iron overload. MAGMA 12:153–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Jensen PD, Jensen FT, Christensen T, Eiskjaer H, Baandrup U, Nielsen JL (2003) Evaluation of myocardial iron by magnetic resonance imaging during iron chelation therapy with deferrioxamine: indication of close relation between myocardial iron content and chelatable iron pool. Blood 101:4632–4639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Jerosch-Herold M, Sheridan DC, Kushner JD et al (2008) Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial contrast uptake and blood flow in patients affected with idiopathic or familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295:H1234–H1242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Johansson B, Maceira AM, Babu-Narayan SV, Moon JC, Pennell DJ, Kilner PJ (2007) Clefts can be seen in the basal inferior wall of the left ventricle and the interventricular septum in healthy volunteers as well as patients by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Am Coll Cardiol 50:1294–1297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Jurcut R, Wildiers H, Ganame J, D’hooge J, Paridaens R, Voigt JU (2008) Detection and monitoring of cardiotoxicity-what does modern cardiology offer? Support Care Cancer 16:437–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Kahan A, Allanore Y (2006) Primary myocardial involvement in systemic sclerosis. Rheumatology 45:iv14–iv17Google Scholar
  166. Kalil-Filho R, de Albuquerque CP (1995) Magnetic resonance imaging in Chagas’ heart disease. Rev Paul Med 113:880–883Google Scholar
  167. Kane GC, Keogh KA (2009) Involvement of the heart by small and medium vessel vasculitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 21:29–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Kang YJ (2003) New understanding in cardiotoxicity. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 6:110–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Kawada N, Sakuma H, Yamakado T et al (1999) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: MR measurement of coronary blood flow and vasodilator flow reserve in patients and healthy subjects. Radiology 21:129–135Google Scholar
  170. Kellman P, Hernando D, Shah S et al (2009) Multiecho Dixon fat and water separation method for detecting fibrofatty infiltration in the myocardium. Magn Reson Med 61:215–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Keren A, Syrris P, McKenna WJ (2008) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the genetic determinants of clinical disease expression. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 5:158–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Khavandi K, Khavandi A, Asghar O et al (2009) Diabetic cardiomyopathy—a distinct disease? Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 23:347–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Kimura F, Matsuo Y, Nakajima T et al (2010) Myocardial fat at cardiac imaging: how can we differentiate pathologic form physiologic fatty infiltration. Radiographics 30:1587–1602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Kindermann I, Kindermann M, Kandolf R et al (2008) Predictors of outcome in patients with suspected myocarditis. Circulation 118:639–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Kirk P, Roughton M, Porter JB et al (2009) Cardiac T2* magnetic resonance for prediction of cardiac complications in thalassemia major. Circulation 120:1961–1968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Kloner RA, Rezkalla SH (2003) Cocaine and the heart. N Engl J Med 348:487–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Klues HG, Schiffers A, Maron BJ (1995) Phenotypic spectrum and patterns of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertophic cardiomyopathy: morphologic observations and significance as assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography in 600 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 26:1699–1708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Knaapen P, Götte MJW, Paulus WJ et al (2006) Does myocardial fibrosis hinder contractile function and perfusion in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy? PET and MR imaging study. Radiology 240:380–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Knaapen P, Germans T, Camici PG et al (2008) Determinants of coronary microvascular dysfunction in symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294:H986–H993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Kobayashi H, Yokoe I, Hirano M et al (2008) Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with pharmacological stress perfusion and delayed enhancement in asymptomatic patients with systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol 36:106–112Google Scholar
  181. Kohli SK, Pantazis AA, Shah JS et al (2008) Diagnosis of left-ventricular non-compaction in patients with left-ventricular systolic dysfunction: time for a reappraisal of diagnostic criteria. Eur Heart J 29:89–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Koito H, Suzuki J, Ohkubo N, Ishiguro Y, Iwasaka T, Inada M (1996) Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of dilated cardiomyopathy: clinical significance of abnormally high signal intensity of left ventricular myocardium. J Cardiol 28:41–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Kosovsky PA, Ehlers KH, Rafal RB, Williams WM, O’Loughlin JE, Markisz JA (1991) MR imaging of cardiac mass in Wegener granulomatosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr 15:1028–1030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Koyama J, Ray-Sequin PA, Falk RH et al (2003) Longitudinal myocardial function assessed by tissue velocity, strain, and strain rate tissue Doppler echocardiography in patients with AL (primary) cardiac amyloidosis. Circulation 107:2446–2452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Kramer CM, Reichek N, Ferrari VA, Theobald T, Dawson J, Axel L (1994) Regional heterogeneity of function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 90:186–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Kubo T, Gimeno JR, Bahl A et al (2007) Prevalence, clinical significance, and genetic basis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with restrictive phenotype. J Am Coll Cardiol 49:2419–2426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Kushwaha SS, Fallon JT, Fuster V (1997) Restrictive cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 336:267–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Kwon DH, Setser RM, Thamilarasan M et al (2008) Abnormal papillary muscle morphology is independently associated with increased left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophy cardiomyopathy. Heart 94:1295–1301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Kwon DH, Smedira NG, Rodriguez ER et al (2009) Cardiac magnetic resonance detection of myocardial scarring in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Correlation with histopathology and prevalence of ventricular tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol 54:242–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Laissy JP, Messin B, Varenne O et al (2002) MRI of acute myocarditis: a comprehensive approach based on various imaging sequences. Chest 122:1638–1648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Lakdawala NK, Givertz MM (2010) Dilated cardiomyopathy with conduction disease and arrhythmia. Circulation 122:527–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Lamb HJ, Beyerbacht HP, van der Laarse A et al (1999) Diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive heart disease is associated with altered myocardial metabolism. Circulation 99:2261–2267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Lauschke J, Maisch B (2008) Athlete’s heart of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy? Clin Res Cardiol 98:80–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Leonardi S, Raineri C, De Ferrari GM et al (2009) Usefulness of cardiac magnetic resonance in assessing the risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 30:2003–2010PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Lesnefsky EJ, Allen KG, Carrea FP, Horwitz LD (1992) Iron-cjatalyzed reactions cause lipid peroxidation in the intact heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 24:1031–1038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Lieberman EB, Hutchins GM, Herskowitz A, Rose NR, Baughman KL (1991) Clinicopathologic description of myocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 18:1616–1626Google Scholar
  197. Lightfoot JC, D’Agostino RB, Hamilton CA et al (2010) Novel approach to early detection of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in an experimental model. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 3:550–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Lipshultz SE, Colan SD, Gelber RD et al (1991) Late cardiac effects of doxorubicin therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. N Engl J Med 324:808–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Liu P, Olivieri N (1994) Iron overload cardiomyopathies: new insights into an old disease. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 8:101–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Lofiego C, Biagini E, Pasquale F et al (2007) Wide spectrum of presentation and variable outcomes of isolated left ventricular non-compaction. Heart 93:65–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Lombardi C, Rusconi C, Faggiano P, Lanzani G, Campana C, Arbustini E (1995) Successful reduction of endomyocardial fibrosis in a patient with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. A case report. Angiology 46:345–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Lund MB, Ihlen H, Voss BM et al (1996) Increased risk of heart valve regurgitation after mediastinal radiation for Hodgkin’s disease: an echocardiographic study. Heart 75:591–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Maceira AM, Joshi J, Prasad SK et al (2005) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in cardiac amyloidosis. Circulation 111:186–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Maceira AM, Prasad SK, Pennell DJ, Mohiaddin RH (2008a) Integrated evaluation of the hypertensive patient with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Int J Cardiol 125:383–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Maceira AM, Prasad SK, Hawkins PN, Roughton M, Pennell DJ (2008b) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance and prognosis in cardiac amyloidosis. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 10:54–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. MacGowan GA, Shapiro EP, Azhari H et al (1997) Shortening in the fiber and cross-fiber directions in the normal human left ventricle and in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation 96:535–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Mahrholdt H, Goedecke C, Wagner A et al (2004) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of human myocarditis. A comparison to histology and molecular biology. Circulation 109:1250–1258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Mahrholdt H, Wagner A, Judd RM, Sechtem U, Kim RJ (2005) Delayed enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies. Eur Heart J 26:1461–1474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Mahrholdt H, Wagner A, Deluigi C et al (2006) Presentation, patterns of myocardial damage, and clinical course of viral myocarditis. Circulation 114:1581–1590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Maier SE, Fischer SE, McKinnon GC, Hess OM, Kraeyenbuehl HP, Boesiger P (1992) Evaluation of left ventricular segmental wall motion in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with myocardial tagging. Circulation 86:1919–1928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Manins V, Habersberger J, Pfluger H, Taylor AJ (2009) Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of cardiac sarcoidosis: an Australian single-center experience. Int J Med 39:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Marcu CB, beek AM, van Rossum AC (2007) Chagas’ heart disease diagnosed on MRI: the importance of patient “geographic” history. Int J Cardiol 1147:e58–e60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Marcus FI, McKenna WJ, Sherrill D et al (2010) Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dyplasia. Proposed modification of the task force criteria. Circulation 121:1533–1541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Mark PB, Johnston N, Groenning BA et al (2006) Redefinition of uremic cardiomyopathy by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Kidney Int 69:1839–1845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Marmursztejn J, Vignaux O, Cohen P et al (2009) Impact of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of Churg-Strauss syndrome: a cross-sectional study in 20 patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol 27:S70–S76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Marmursztejn J, Cohen P, Duboc D et al (2010) Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in Churg-Strauss-syndrome. Impact of immunosuppressants on outcome assessed in a prospective study on 8 patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol 28(1 Suppl 57):8–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Maron BJ (2003) Sudden death in young athletes. N Engl J Med 349:1064–1075PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Maron BJ, Pelliccia A (2006) The heart of trained athletes. Cardiac remodeling and the risk of sports, including sudden death. Circulation 114:1633–1644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Maron BJ, Anan TJ, Roberts WC (1981) Quantitative analysis of the distribution of cardiac muscle cell disorganization in the left ventricular wall of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 63:882–894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Maron BJ, Bonow RO, Cannon ROI, Leon MB (1987) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: interrelations of clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and therapy. N Engl J Med 316:780–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Maron BJ, Pelliccia A, Spirito P (1995) Cardiac disease in young trained athletes. Insight into methods for distinguishing athlete’s heart from structural heart disease, with particular emphasis on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 91:1596–1602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Maron BJ, McKenna WJ, Danielson GK et al (2003a) American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology clinical expert consensus document on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 42:1687–1713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Maron MS, Olivotto I, Betocchi S et al (2003b) Effect of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction on clinical outcome in hypertrophy cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 348:295–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Maron BJ, Towbin JA, Thiene G et al (2006a) Contemporary definitions and classification of the cardiomyopathies: an American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Heart Failure and Transplantation Committee; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology Interdisciplinary Working Groups; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation 113:1807–1816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Maron MS, Olvitoo I, Zenovich AG et al (2006b) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is predominantly a disease of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Circulation 114:2232–2239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Maron MS, Hauser TH, Dubrow E et al (2007) Right ventricular involvement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 100:1293–1298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Maron MS, Finley JJ, Bos M et al (2008a) Prevalence, clinical significance, and natural history of left ventricular apical aneurysms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 118:1541–1549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Maron MS, Appelbaum E, Harrigan CJ et al (2008b) Clinical profile and significance of delayed enhancement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circ Heart Fail 1:184–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Maron MS, Maron BJ, Harrigan C et al (2009) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotype revisited after 50 years with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Am Coll Cardiol 54:220–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Maron MS, Olivotto I, Harrigan C et al (2011) Mitral valve abnormalities identified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance represent a primary phenotypic expression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 124:40–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Masci PG, Marinelli M, Piacenti M et al (2010a) Myocardial structural, perfusion, and metabolic correlates of left bundle branch block mechanical derangement in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. A tagged cardiac magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography study. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 3:482–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Masci PG, Francone M, Desmet W et al (2010b) Right ventricular ischemic injury in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Characterization with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Circulation 122:1405–1412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Matoh F, Satoh H, Shiraki K et al (2007) Usefulness of delayed enhancement magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy. J Cardiac Fail 13:372–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Matoh F, Satoh H, Shiraki K et al (2008) The usefulness of delayed enhancement magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac function in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. J Cardiol 51:179–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Matsuki M, Matsuo M (2000) MR findings of myocardial sarcoidosis. Clin Radiol 55:323–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Matsuoka H, Hamada M, Honda T et al (1993) Precise assessment of myocardial damage associated with secondary cardiomyopathies by use of Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Angiology 44:945–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Mavrogeni S, Gotsis E, Verganelakis D et al (2009) Effect of iron overload on exercise capacity in thalassemic patients with heart failure. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 25:777–783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Maya L, Villarreal FJ (2010) Diagnostic approaches for diabetic cardiomyopathy and myocardial fibrosis. J Moll Cell Cardiology 48:524–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Mazur W, Nagueh SF, Lakkis NM et al (2001) Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy after nonsurgical septal reduction therapy for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Circulation 103:1492–1496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. McCann GP, Van Dockum WG, Beek AM et al (2007) Extent of myocardial infarction and reverse remodeling assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with and without right bundle branch block following alcohol septal ablation for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 99:563–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. McCrohon JA, Richmond DR, Pennell DJ, Mohiaddin RH (2002) Isolated noncompaction of the myocardium. A rarity or missed diagnosis? Circulation 106:e22–e23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. McCrohon JA, Moon JCC, Prasad SK et al (2003) Differentiation of heart failure related to dilated cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease using gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Circulation 108:54–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. McKenna WJ, Thiene G, Nava A et al (1994) Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Br Heart J 71:215–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Meijs MFL, Bots ML, Vonken E-JA et al (2007) Rationale and design of the SMART Heart study. A prediction model for left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertension. Neth Heart J 15:295–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Mekinian A, Lions C, Leleu X et al (2010) Prognosis assessment of cardiac involvement in systemic AL amyloidosis by magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Med 123:864–868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Melacini P, Basso C, Angelini A et al (2010) Clinicopathological profiles of progressive heart failure in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 31:2111–2123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Meyer C, Schmid G, Görlitz S et al (2007) Cardiomyopathy in Friedreich’s ataxia—assessment by cardiac MRI. Mov Disord 22:1615–1622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Migrino RQ, Christenson R, Szabo A, Bright M, Truran S, Hari P (2009) Prognostic implication of late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac MRI in light chain (AL) amyloidosis on long term follow-up. BMC Med Phys 9:5–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Miller MA, Gomes JA, Fuster V (2007) Risk stratification of sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 4:667–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Minami Y, Kajimoto K, Terajima Y et al (2011) Clinical implications of midventricular obstruction in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 57:2346–2355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Mocumbi AO, Ferreira MB, Sidi D, Yacoub MH (2008) A population study of endomyocardial fibrosis in a rural area of Mozambique. N Engl J Med 359:43–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Mollet NR, Dymarkowski S, Volders W et al (2002) Visualization of ventricular thrombi with contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with ischemic heart disease. Circulation 106:2873–2876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Moon JCC, McKenna WJ, McCrohon JA, Elliot PM, Smith GC, Pennell DJ (2003a) Toward clinical risk assessment in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Am Coll Cardiol 41:1561–1567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Moon JCC, Mundy HR, Lee PJ, Mohiaddin RH, Pennell DJ (2003b) Myocardial fibrosis in glycogen storage disease type III. Circulation 107:e47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Moon JCC, Sachdev B, Elkington AG et al (2003c) Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in Anderson-Fabry disease. Evidence for a disease specific abnormality of the myocardial interstitium. Eur Heart J 24:2151–2155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Moon JC, Fisher NG, McKenna WJ, Pennell DJ (2004a) Detection of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with non-diagnostic echocardiography. Heart 90:645–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Moon JC, Reed E, Sheppard MN et al (2004b) The histologic basis of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 43:2260–2264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Moon JC, Sheppard M, Reed E et al (2006) The histological basis of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a patient with Anderson-Fabry disease. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 8:479–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Moreo A, Ambrosio G, De Chiara B et al (2009) Influence of myocardial fibrosis on left ventricular diastolic function. Noninvasive assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance and echo. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2:437–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Morganroth J, Maron BJ, Henry WL, Epstein SE (1975) Comparative left ventricular dimensions in trained athletes. Ann Intern Med 82:521–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Motoyasu M, Kurita T, Onishi K et al (2008) Correlation between late gadolinium enhancement and diastolic function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Circ J 72:378–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Munk PS, ∅rn S, Larsen AI (2007) Lyme carditis: persistent local delayed enhancement by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Int J Cardiol 115:e108–e110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Myrehaug S, Pintelie M, Yun L et al (2010) A population-based study of cardiac morbidity among Hodgkin lymphoma patients with preexisting heart disease. Blood 116:2237–2240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Nagueh SF, Mahmarian JJ (2006) Noninvasive cardiac imaging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 48:2410–2422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Naik M, Kim D, O’Brien F, Axel L, Srichai MB (2008) Images in cardiovascular medicine. Lyme carditis. Circulation 118:1881–1884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Nassenstein K, Breuckmann F, Huger M et al (2008) Detection of myocardial fibrosis in systemic sclerosis by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Rofo 180:1054–1060PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Nathwani D, Hamlet N, Walker E (1990) Lyme disease: a review. Br J Gen Pract 40:72–74 (see comments)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Naylor LH, George K, O’Driscoll G, Green DJ (2008) The athlete’s heart: a contemporary appraisal of the ‘Morganroth hypothesis’. Sports Med 38:69–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Nazarian S, Bluemke DA, Lardo AC et al (2005) Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 112:2821–2825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Neumann T, Manger B, Schmid M et al (2009) Cardiac involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome: impact of endomyocarditis. Medicine (Baltimore) 88:236–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Ng AC, Delgado V, Bertini M et al (2010) Myocardial steatosis and biventricular strain and strain rate imaging in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation 122:2538–2544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Nihoyannopoulos P, Dawson D (2009) Restrictive cardiomyopathies. Eur J Echocardio 10:iii23–iii33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Niida T, Isoda K, Sasaki M et al (2008) Late gadolinium enhanced high resolution magnetic resonance imaging reveals pathophysiological condition of cardiac sarcoidosis. Int Heart J 50:263–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Norman M, Simpson M, Mogensen J et al (2005) Novel mutation in desmoplakin causes arrhythmogenic left ventricular cardiomyopathy. Circulation 112:636–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Nucifora G, Aquaro GD, Pingitore A, Masci PG, Lombardi M (2011) Myocardial fibrosis in isolated left ventricular non-compaction and its relation to disease severity. Eur J Heart Failure 13:170–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. O’Hanlon R, Grasso A, Roughton M et al (2010) Prognostic significance of myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 56:867–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. O’Neill SG, Woldman S, Bailliard F et al (2009) Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 68(9):1478–1481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Oechslin E, Jenni R (2011) Left ventricular non-compaction revisited: a distinct phenotype with genetic heterogeneity? Eur Heart J 32:1446–1456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Oechslin EN, Attenhofer Jost CH, Rojas JR et al (2000) Long-term follow-up of 34 adults with isolated left ventricular noncompaction: a distinct cardiomyopathy with poor prognosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 36:493–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Ohira H, Tsujino I, Ishimaru S (2008) Myocardial imaging with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in sarcoidosis. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 35:933–941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Olivotto I, Maron MS, Autore C et al (2008) Assessment and significance of left ventricular mass by magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 52:559–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Olivotto I, Maron BJ, Appelbaum E et al (2010) Spectrum and clinical significance of systolic function and myocardial fibrosis assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 106:261–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Ong P, Athansiadis A, Hill S et al (2011) Usefulness of pericardial effusion as new diagnostic criterion for noninvasive detection of myocarditis. Am J Cardiol 108:445–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Otmani A, Leborgne L, Renard C et al (2007) Electrocardiogram, electrocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in Uhl’s disease. Circulation 115:e11–e12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Owan TE, Hodge DO, Herges RM et al (2006) Trends in prevalence and outcome of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. N Engl J Med 355:251–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Pamuru PR, Dokuparthi MVN, Remersu S, Calambur N, Nallari P (2010) Comparison of Uhl’s anomaly, right ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia (RVOT VT) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) with an insight into genetics of ARVD/C. Indian J Med Res 131:35–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Park JH, Kim YM, Chung JW, Park YB, Han JH, Han MC (1992) MR imaging of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Radiology 185:441–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Parrillo JE (1990) Heart disease and the eosinophil. N Engl J Med 323:1560–1561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Patel MR, Cawley PJ, Heitner JF et al (2009) Detection of myocardial sarcoidosis in patients with sarcoidosis. Circulation 120:1969–1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Petersen SE, Selvanayagam JB, Francis JM et al (2005a) Differentiation of athlete’s heart from pathological forms of cardiac hypertrophy by means of geometric indices derived from cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 7:551–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Petersen SE, Selvanayagam JB, Wiesmann F et al (2005b) Left ventricular non-compaction. Insight from cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 46:101–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Petersen SE, Jerosch-Herold M, Hudsmith LE (2007) Evidence for microvascular dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. New insights from multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 115:2418–2425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Pfluger HB, Phrommintikul A, Mariani JA, Cherayath JG, Taylor AJ (2008) Utility of myocardial fibrosis and fatty infiltration detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia–a single centre experience. Heart Lung Circ 17:478–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Pieroni M, Dello Russo A, Marzo F et al (2009) High prevalence of myocarditis mimicking arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Differential diagnosis by electroanatomic mapping-guided endomyocardial biopsy. J Am Coll Cardiol 53:681–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Pignatelli RH, McMahon CJ, Dreyer WJ et al (2003) Clinical characterization of left ventricular noncompaction in children. A relatively common form of cardiomyopathy. Circulation 108:2672–2678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Pinamonti B, Dragos AM, Pyxaras SA et al (2011) Prognostic predictors in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: results from a 10-year registry. Eur Heart J 32:1105–1113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Pitt M, Davies MK, Brady AJ (1996) Hypereosinophilic syndrome: endomyocardial fibrosis. Heart 76:377–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Pluim BM, Zwinderman AH, van der Laarse A, van der Wall EE (1999) The athlete’s heart. A meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function. Circulation 100:336–344Google Scholar
  299. Prasad A, Lerman A, Rihal CS (2008) Apical ballooning syndrome (Tako-Tsubo or stress cardiomyopathy): a mimic of acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 155:408–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Prasad A, Hastings JL, Shibata S et al (2010) Characterization of static and dynamic left ventricular function in patients with heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction. Circ Heart Fail 3:617–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Proclemer A, Basadonna PT, Slavich GA, Miani D, Fresco C, Fioretti PM (1997) Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with right ventricular outflow tract premature contractions. Eur Heart J 18:2002–2010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Rademakers FE, Bogaert J (2006) Cardiac dysfunction in heart failure with normal ejection fraction: MRI measurements. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 49:215–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Rademakers FE, Buchalter MB, Rogers WJ et al (1992) Dissociation between left ventricular untwisting and filling. Accentuation by catecholamines. Circulation 85:1572–1581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Rademakers FE, Marchal G, Mortelmans L, Van de Werf F, Bogaert J (2003) Evolution of regional performance after an acute anterior myocardial infarction in humans using magnetic resonance tagging. J Physiol 546:777–787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Rahman JE, Helou EF, Gelzer-Bell R (2004) Noninvasive diagnosis of biopsy-proven cardiac amyloidosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 43:410–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Raman SV, Basso C, Tandri H, Taylor MRG (2010) Imaging phenotype vs genotype in nonhypertrophic heritable cardiomyopathies. Dilated cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 3:753–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Rapezzi C, Merline G, Quarta C et al (2009) Systemic cardiac amyloidosis. Disease profiles and clinical courses of the 3 main types. Circulation 120:1203–1212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Richardson P, McKenna W, Bristow M et al (1996) Report of the 1995 World Health Organization/International Society and Federation of Cardiology Task Force on the definition and classification of cardiomyopathies. Circulation 93:841–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Rickers C, Wilke N, Jerosch-Herold M et al (2005) Utility of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 112:855–861PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Rijzewijk LJ, van der Meer RW, Smit JW et al (2008) Myocardial steatosis is an independenet predictor of diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Cardiol 52:1793–1799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Ripoli A, Pingitore A, Favilli B et al (2005) Does subclinical hypothyroidism affect cardiac pump performance? Evidence from a magnetic resonance imaging study. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:439–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Rochitte CE, Nacif MD, de Oliveira Junior AC et al (2007) Cardiac magnetic resonance in Chagas’ disease. Artif Organs 31:259–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Ruberg FL, Appelbaum E, Davidoff R et al (2009) Diagnostic and prognostic utility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in light-chain cardiac amyloidosis. Am J Cardiol 103:544–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Rubinshtein R, Glockner JF, Ommen SR et al (2010) Characteristics and clinical significance of late gadolinium enhancement by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circ Heart Fail 3:51–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Rudin M, Pedersen B, Umemura K, Zierhut W (1991) Determination of rat heart morphology and function in vivo in two models of cardiac hypertrophy by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Basic Res Cardiol 86:165–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Rudolf A, Abdel-Aty H, Bohl S et al (2009) Noninvasive detection of fibrosis applying contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy. Relation to remodeling. J Am Coll Cardiol 53:284–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Scharlag J, Schneider G, Urhausen A, Rochette V, Kramann B, Kindermann W (2002) Athete’s heart. Right and left ventricular mass and function in male endurance athletes and untrained individuals determined by magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 40:1856–1863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Schietinger BJ, Brammer GM, Wang H et al (2008) Patterns of late gadolinium enhancement in chronic hemodialysis patients. J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1:450–456Google Scholar
  319. Schulz-Menger J, Strohm O, Waigand J, Uhlich F, Dietz R, Friedrich MG (2000a) The value of magnetic resonance imaging of the left ventricular outflow tract in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy after septal artery embolization. Circulation 101:1764–1766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Schulz-Menger J, Strohm O, Dietz R, Friedrich MG (2000b) Visualization of cardiac involvement in patients with systemic sarcoidosis applying contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. MAGMA 11:82–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Schulz-Menger J, Abdel-Aty H, Busjahn A et al (2006) Left ventricular outflow tract planimetry by cardiovascular magnetic resonance differentiates obstructive from non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 8:741–746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Schwefer M, Aschenbach R, Heidemann J, Mey C, Lapp H (2009) Constrictive pericarditis, still a diagnostic challenge: comprehensive review of clinical management. Eur J Cardiohoracic Surg 36:502–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Semelka RC, Tomei E, Wagner S et al (1990) Interstudy reproducibility of dimensional and functional measurements between cine magnetic resonance studies in the morphologically abnormal left ventricle. Am Heart J 119:1367–1373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Sen-Chowdhry S, Prasad SK, Syrris P et al (2006) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy revisited. Comparison with task force criteria and genotype. J Am Coll Cardiol 48:2132–2140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Sen-Chowdhry S, Syrris P, Ward D, Asimaki A, Sevdalis E, McKenna WJ (2007) Clinical and genetic characterization of families with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy provides novel insights into patterns of disease expression. Circulation 115:1710–1720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Sen-Chowdhry S, Syrris P, Prasad SK et al (2008) Left dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. An underrecognized clinical entity. J Am Coll Cardiol 52:2175–2187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Sen-Chowdhry S, Syrris P, Pantazis A et al (2010) Mutational heterogeneity, modifier genes, and environmental influence to phenotypic diversity of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Circ Cardiovasc Genet 3:323–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Sharkey SW, Lesser JR, Zenovich AG et al (2005) Acute and reversible cardiomyopathy provoked by stress in women form the United States. Circulation 111:472–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Sharma OP (2003) Diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. An imperfect science, a hesitant art. Chest 123:18–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Shimada T, Shimada K, Sakane T et al (2001) Diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis and evaluation of the effects of steroid therapy by gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Med 110:520–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Shimizu I, Iguchi N, Watanabe H et al (2010) Delayed cardiovascular magnetic resonance as a novel technique to predict cardiac events in dilated cardiomyopathy patients. Int J Cardiol 142:224–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Sigwart U (1995) Non-surgical reduction for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Lancet 346:211–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Silva MC, Meira ZM, Giannetti G et al (2007) Myocardial delayed enhancement by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with muscular dystrophy. J Am Coll Cardiol 49:1874–1879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Silverman KJ, Hutchins GM, Bulkley BH (1978) Cardiac sarcoid: a clinicopathologic study of 84 unselected patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Circulation 58:1204–1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Simonetti OP, Kim RJ, Fieno DS et al (2001) An improved MR imaging technique for the visualization of myocardial infarction. Radiology 218:215–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Singal PK, Iliskovic N (1998) Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 339:900–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Singh JA, Woodard PK, Davilla-Roman VG et al (2005) Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus: a preliminary report. Lupus 14:137–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Sliwa K, Flett J, Elkayam Y (2006) Peripartum cardiomyopathy. Lancet 368:687–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Smedema JP, Snoep G, van Kroonenburgh MPG et al (2005) Evaluation of the accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance in the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:1683–1690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Smith SC, Ladenson JH, Mason JW, Jaffe AS (1997) Elevations of cardiac troponin I associated with myocarditis. Experimental and clinical correlates. Circulation 95:163–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Soler R, Rodriguez E, Rodriguez JA, Perez ML, Penas M (1997) Magnetic resonance imaging of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Thorac Imaging 12:221–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Soriano CJ, Ridocci F, Estornell J, Jimenez J, Martinez V, De Velasco JA (2005) Noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease in patients with heart failure and systolic dysfunction of uncertain etiology, using late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:743–748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Sotgia B, Sciagrà R, Olivotto I et al (2008) Spatial resolution between coronary microvascular dysfunction and delayed contrast enhancement in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Nucl Med 49:1090–1096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Sparrow P, Amirabadi A, Sussman MS, Paul N, Merchant N (2009) Quantitative assessment of myocardial T2 relaxation times in cardiac amyloidosis. J Magn Reson Imaging 30:942–946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Spirito P, Seidman CE, MCKenna WJ, Maron BK (1997) The management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 336:775–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Stanek G, Gray J, Strie F, Wormser G (2004) Lyme borreliosis. Lancet Infect Dis 4:197–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Stark DD, Mosely ME, Bacon BR et al (1985) Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of hepatic iron overload. Radiology 154:137–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Stensaeth KH, Fossum E, Hoffmann P et al (2010) Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in acute coronary syndrome; clinical features and contribution of cardiac magnetic resonance during the acute and convalescent phase. Scand Cardiovasc J 45:77–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Steward S, Mason D, Braunwald E (1968) Impaired rate of left ventricular filling in idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis and valvular aortic stenosis. Circulation 37:8–14Google Scholar
  350. Stöllberger C, Blazek G, Wegner C, Winkler-Dworak M, Finsterer J (2011) Neuromuscular and cardiac comorbidity determines survival in 140 patients with left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction. Int J Cardiol 148:120–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Storey P, Thompson AA, Carqueville CL et al (2007) R2* imaging at 3T and comparison with 1.5. J Magn Reson Imaging 25:540–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Strohm O, Schulz-Menger J, Pilz B, Osterziel KJ, Dietz R, Friedrich MG (2001) Measurement of left ventricular dimensions and function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. J Magn Reson Imaging 13:367–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Stuber M, Scheidegger MB, Fischer SE et al (1999) Alterations in the local myocardial motion pattern in patients suffering from pressure overload due to aortic stenosis. Circulation 100:361–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Sueyoshi E, Sakamoto I, Uetani M (2010) Contrast-enhanced myocardial inversion time at the null point for detection of left ventricular myocardial fibrosis in patients with dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a pilot study. AJR Am J Roentgenol 294:W293–W298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Suk T, Edwards C, Hart H, Christiansen JP (2008) Myocardial scar detected by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is associated with ventricular tachycardia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients. Heart Lung Circ 17:370–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Sun JP, James KB, Yang XS et al (1997) Comparison of mortality rates and progression of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and dilated versus nondilated right ventricular cavities. Am J Cardiol 80:1583–1587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Suzuki J, Caputo GR, Masui T, Chang JM, O’Sullivan M, Higgins CB (1991) Assessment of right ventricular diastolic and systolic function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy using cine magnetic resonance imaging. Am Heart J 122:1035–1040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Suzuki J, Watanabe F, Takenaka K et al (1993) New subtype of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy identified with nuclear magnetic resonance imaging as an underlying cause of markedly inverted T waves. J Am Coll Cardiol 22:1175–1181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Syed IS, Prasad A, Oh JK (2008) Apical ballooning syndrome or aborted acute myocardial infarction? Insights from cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 24:875–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Syed IS, Glockner JF, Feng DL et al (2010) Role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of cardiac amyloidosis. J Am Coll Cardiol Img 3:155–164Google Scholar
  361. Takenaka T, Teraguchi H, Yoshida A et al (2008) Terminal stage cardiac findings in patient with cardiac Fabry disease: an electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and autopsy study. J Cardiol 51:50–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Tan YT, Wenzelburger F, Lee E et al (2009) The pathophysiology of heart failure with normal ejection fraction. Exercise echocardiography reveals complex abnormalities of both systolic and diastolic function involving torsion, untwist, and longitudinal motion. J Am Coll Cardiol 54:36–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Tandri H, Calkins H, Nasir K et al (2003) Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients meeting task force criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 14:476–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Tandri H, Bluemke DA, Ferrari VA et al (2004) Findings on magnetic resonance imaging of idiopathic right ventricular outflow tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 94:1441–1445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Tandri H, Saranathan M, Rodriguez ER et al (2005) Noninvasive detection of myocardial fibrosis in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy using delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:98–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Tandri H, Castillo E, Ferrari VA et al (2006) Magnetic resonance imaging of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Sensitivity, specificity, and observer variability of fat detection versus functional analysis of the right ventricle. J Am Coll Cardiol 48:2277–2284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Tanner MA, Galanello R, Dessi C et al (2007) A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of the effect of combined therapy with deferoxamine and deferiprone on myocardial iron in thalassemia major using cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Circulation 115:1876–1884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Thaman R, Gimeno JR, Reith S et al (2004) Progressive left ventricular remodeling in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and severe left ventricular hypertrophy. J Am Coll Cardiol 44:398–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Tigen K, Karaahmet T, Kirma C et al (2010) Diffuse late gadolinium enhancement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts significant intraventricular systolic dyssynchrony in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 23:416–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. To A, De Zoysa J, Christiansen JP (2007) Cardiomyopathy associated with Wegener’s granulomatosis. Heart 93:984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Tsukihashi K, Ueshima K, Uchida T et al (2001) Transient left ventricular apical ballooning without coronary artery stenosis: a novel heart syndrome mimicking acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 38:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Ueyama T, Kasamatsu K, Hano T, Yamamoto K, Tsuruo Y, Nishio I (2002) Emotional stress induces transient left ventricular hypocontraction in the rat via activation of cardiac adrenoceptors. A possible animal of Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy. Circ J 66:712–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Uhl HSM (1952) A previously undescribed congenital malformation of the heart: almost total absence of the myocardium of the right ventricle. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 91:197–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Valeti US, Nishimura RA, Holmes DR et al (2007) Comparison of surgical septal myectomy and alcohol septal ablation with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 49:350–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. van der Linde MR (1991) Lyme carditis: clinical characteristics of 105 cases. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 77:81–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. van Dockum WG, ten Gate FJ, ten Berg JM et al (2004) Myocardial infarction after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: evaluation by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 43:27–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. van Dockum WG, Beek AM, ten Gate FJ et al (2005) Early onset and progression of left ventricular remodeling after alcohol septal ablation in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Circulation 111:2503–2508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. van Dockum WG, Kuijer JPA, Götte MJW et al (2006) Septal ablation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy improves systolic myocardial function in the lateral (free) wall: a follow-up study using CMR tissue tagging and 3D strain analysis. Eur Heart J 27:2833–2839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Van Geluwe F, Dymarkowski S, Crevits I, De Wever W, Bogaert J (2006) Amyloidosis of the heart and respiratory system. Eur Radiol 16:2358–2365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Varnava AM, Elliot PM, Sharma S, McKenna WJ, Davies MJ (2000) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the interrelation of disarray, fibrosis, and small vessel disease. Heart 84:476–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Varnava AM, Elliot PM, Mahon N, Davies MJ, McKenna WJ (2001) Relation between myocyte disarray and outcome in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 88:275–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Vermes E, Strohm O, Otmani A et al (2011) Impact of the revision of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia task force criteria on its prevalence by CMR criteria. J Am Coll Cardiol Img 4:282–287Google Scholar
  383. Vignaux O, Dhote R, Duboc D et al (2002a) Detection of myocardial involvement in patients with sarcoidosis applying T2-weighted, contrast-enhanced, and cine magnetic resonance imaging: initial results of a prospective study. J Comput Assist Tomogr 26:762–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Vignaux O, Dhote R, Duboc D et al (2002b) Clinical significance of myocardial magnetic resonance abnormalities in patients with sarcoidosis. A 1-year follow-up study. Chest 122:1895–1901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Virmani R, Bures JC, Roberts WC (1980) Cardiac sarcoidosis: a major cause of sudden death in young individuals. Chest 77:423–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Vogel M, Anderson LJ, Holden S, Deanfield JE, Pennell DJ, Walker JM (2003) Tissue Doppler echocardiography in patients with thalassaemia detects early myocardial dysfunction related to myocardial iron overload. Eur Heart J 24:113–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Vogelsang TW, Hanel B, Kristoffersen US et al (2008) Effect of eight weeks of endurance training on right and left ventricular volume and mass in untrained obese subjects: a longitudinal study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 18:354–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Vogelsberg H, Mahrholdt H, Deluigi C et al (2008) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in clinically suspected cardiac amyloidosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 51:1022–1030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Voigt A, Elgeti T, Durmus T et al (2011) Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in dilated cardiomyopathy in adults—towards identification of myocardial inflammation. Eur Radiol 21:925–935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Von Hoff D, Layard M, Basa P (1979) Risk factors for doxorubicin-induced congestive heart failure. Ann Intern Med 91:710–717Google Scholar
  391. Wassmuth R, Lentzsch S, Erbruegger U et al (2001) Subclinical cardiotoxic effects of anthracyclines as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging–a pilot study. Am Heart J 141:1007–1013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Wassmuth R, Göbel U, Natusch A et al (2008) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging detects cardiac involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome. J Card Fail 14:856–860PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Watkins H, Ashrafian H, Redwood C (2011) Inherited cardiomyopathies. N Engl J Med 364:1643–1656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Weidemann F, Niemann M, Breunig F et al (2009) Long-term effects of enzyme replacement therapy on Fabry cardiomyopathy. Evidence for a better outcome with early treatment. Circulation 119:524–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Weller PF, Bubley GJ (1994) The idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Blood 83:2759–2779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. Westermann D, Kasner M, Steendijk P et al (2008) Role of left ventricular stiffness in heart failure with normal ejection fraction. Circulation 117:2051–2060PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Westwood M, Anderson LJ, Firmin DN et al (2003a) A single breath-hold multi-echo T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance technique for diagnosis of myocardial iron overload. J Magn Reson Imag 18:33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. Westwood M, Anderson LJ, Firmin DN et al (2003b) Interscanner reproducibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance T2* measurements of tissue iron in thalassemia. J Magn Reson Imag 18:616–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. White RD, Trohman RG, Flamm SD et al (1998) Right ventricular arrhythmia in the absence of arrhythmogenic dysplasia: MR imaging of myocardial abnormalities. Radiology 207:743–751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. White J, Sutton T, Kerr A (2010) Isolated primary cardiac sarcoidosis. MRI diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response with cardiac enzymes. Circ Heart Fail 3:e28–e29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. World Health Organization Expert Committee (1984) Chagas disease. In: World Health Organization technical report series 697. WHO, Geneva, pp 50–55Google Scholar
  402. Wu E, Judd RM, Vargas JD et al (2001) Visualisation of the presence, location and transmural extent of healed Q-wave and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Lancet 357:21–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. Wu KC, Weiss RG, Thiemann DR et al (2008) Late gadolinium enhancement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance heralds an adverse prognosis in nonischemic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 51:2414–2421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. Yared K, Johri AM, Soni AV et al (2008) Cardiac sarcoidosis imitating arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Circulation 118:e113–e115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Yelgec NS, Dymarkowski S, Ganame J, Bogaert J (2007) Value of MRI in patients with a clinical suspicion of acute myocarditis. Eur Rad 17:2211–2217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. Yilmaz A, Mahrholdt H, Athanasiadis A et al (2008a) Coronary spasm as the underlying cause for chest pain in patients with PVB19 myocarditis. Heart 94:1456–1463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Yilmaz A, Gdynia H-J, Baccouche H et al (2008b) Cardiac involvement in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy: new diagnostic and pathophysiological insights by a CMR approach. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 10:50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Yilmaz A, Kindermann I, Kindermann M et al (2010) Comparative evaluation of left and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. Differences in complication rate and diagnostic performance. Circulation 122:900–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. Yoon GJ, Telli ML, Kao DP et al (2010) Left ventricular dysfunction in patients receiving cardiotoxic cancer therapies are clinicians responding optimally? J Am Coll Cardiol 56:1644–1650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. Young AA, Kramer CM, Ferrari VA, Axel L, Reichek N (1994) Three-dimensional left ventricular deformation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 90:854–867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. Zagrosek A, Wassmuth R, Abdel-Aty H et al (2008) Relation between myocardial edema and myocardial mass during the acute and convalescent phase of myocarditis–a CMR study. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 10:19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. Zagrosek A, Abdel-Aty H, Boyé P et al (2009) Cardiac magnetic resonance monitors reversible and irreversible myocardial injury in myocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol Img 2:131–138Google Scholar
  413. Zile MR, Baicu CF, Gaasch WH (2004) Diastolic heart failure—abnormalities in active relaxation and passive stiffness of the left ventricle. N Engl J Med 350:1953–1959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. Zinzani PL, Gherlinzoni F, Piovaccari G et al (1996) Cardiac injury as late toxicity of mediastinal radiation therapy for Hodgkin’s disease patients. Haematologica 81:132–137PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity Hospitals Casthuisberg, Catholic University of LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Centre for Cardiovascular ImagingUCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Great Ormond Street Hospital for ChildrenLondonUK

Personalised recommendations