Advertisement

Central Nervous System Vasculitis in Children

  • Kalthoum Tlili-Graiess
  • Nadia Mama-Larbi
  • Nadine Girard
  • Charles Raybaud
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis in children may develop as a primary condition, or secondary to an underlying systemic disease. Accurate and early diagnosis is mandatory in order to prevent severe neurological complications. Neuroimaging play an important role in advancing the diagnosis. Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA), MRI, and MRA are the most useful examinations for vasculitis. MRI appears as the modality of choice for diagnosis and follow-up evaluation of cerebral involvement with vasculitis. MRA will be the first angiographic examination in the diagnostic workup of suspected cerebral vasculitis. DSA remains an indispensable tool in some cases for the investigation of medium and small brain artery stenosis. The infectious causes of vasculitis, including bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, are only a small component of the overall list of etiologies but among the more treatable causes if diagnosed early and treated effectively. Cerebral complications associated with systemic vasculitis can occur from hypertensive encephalopathy secondary to renovascular hypertension, or direct intracranial vessel involvement. Childhood primary CNS vasculitis (PVCNS) includes two distinct and actually well-recognized subtypes: angiography-positive PVCNS affecting large-and medium-sized vessels with a progressive and non-progressive forms, and angiography-negative PVCNS involving small-sized vessels. These subtypes are defined by clinical features, neuroimaging characteristics, and brain biopsy findings and each mandates a distinct therapeutic approach. Therefore the diseases that must be considered in children presenting with features suggesting angiography-positive PVCNS are distinctly different from those in suspected angiography-negative PVCNS.

Keywords

Magnetic Resonance Angiography Digital Subtraction Angiography Kawasaki Disease Central Nervous System Involvement Takayasu Arteritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abahji TN, Nill L, Ide N et al (2007) Acute hyperhomocysteinemia induces microvascular and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. Arch Med Res 38(4):411–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adaletli I, Albayram S, Gurses B et al (2006) Vasculopathic changes in the cerebral arterial system with neurobrucellosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27:384–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams RD, Kubik CS, Bonner FJ (1948) The clinical and pathological aspects of influenzal meningitis. Arch Pediatr 65:354–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Akikusa JD, Schneider R, Harvey EA et al (2007) Clinical features and outcome of pediatric Wegener’s granulomatosis. Arthritis Rheum 57(5):837–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander EL (1992) Central nervous system disease in Sjögren’s syndrome: new insights into immunopathogenesis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 18:637–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alexander EL (1993) Neurologic disease in Sjögren’s syndrome: mononuclear inflammatory vasculopathy affecting central/peripheral nervous system and muscle. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 19:869–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Alexander EL, Beall SS, Gordon B et al (1988) Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral lesions in patients with the Sjögren syndrome. Ann Intern Med 108:815–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Allali F, Benomar A, Karim A et al (2004) Behçet’s disease in Moroccan children: a report of 12 cases. Scand J Rheumatol 33:362–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Allen JC, Miller DC, Budzilovich GN et al (1991) Brain and spinal cord hemorrhage in long term survivors of malignant pediatric brain tumors: a possible late affect of therapy. Neurology 41:148–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Al-Sous MW, Bohlega S, Al-Kawi MZ et al (2004) Neurobrucellosis: clinical and neuroimaging correlation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:395–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Altinok D, Yildiz YT, Rusen E et al (2001) Central nervous system involvement of polyarteritis nodosa: a case report. Turk J Pediatr 43:146–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Amano S, Hazama F (1980) Neural involvement in Kawasaki disease. Acta Pathol Jpn 30:365–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Amlie-Lefond C, Bernard TJ, Sébire G et al (2009) Predictors of cerebral arteriopathy in children with arterial ischemic stroke: results of the international pediatric stroke study. Circulation 119:1417–1423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Anaya JM, Ogawa N, Talal N (1995) Sjögren’s syndrome in childhood. J Rheumatol 22:1152–1158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Aoki N (1988) Subdural effusion in the acute stage of Kawasaki disease. Surg Neurol 29:216–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Aoki S, Hayashi N, Abe O et al (2002) Radiation-induced arteritis: thickened wall with prominent enhancement on cranial MR images report of five cases and comparison with 18 cases of moyamoya disease. Radiology 223(3):683–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Askalan R, Laughlin S, Mayank S et al (2001) Chickenpox and stroke in childhood: a study of frequency and causation. Stroke 32(6):1257–1262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Atkinson M, Moore E, Altinok D et al (2008) Cerebral infarct in pediatric neuro-Behçet’s disease. J Child Neurol 23:1331–1335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Atzori M, Battistella P, Perini P et al (2009) Clinical and diagnostic aspects of multiple sclerosis and acute monophasic encephalomyelitis in pediatric patients: a single centre prospective study. Mult Scler 15:363–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Avcin T, Benseler SM, Tyrrell PN et al (2008) A follow-up study of antiphospholipid antibodies and associated neuropsychiatric manifestations in 137 children with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthrit Care Res 59:206–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Aviv RI, Benseler SM, Silverman ED et al (2006) MR imaging and angiography of primary CNS vasculitis of childhood. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27:192–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Aviv RI, Benseler SM, DeVeber G et al (2007) Angiography of primary central nervous system angiitis of childhood: conventional angiography versus magnetic resonance angiography at presentation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:9–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bahabri SA, al-Mazyed A, al-Balaa S et al (1996) Juvenile Behçet’s disease in Arab children. Clin Exp Rheumatol 14:331–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bakkaloglu SA, Ekim M, Tumer N et al (2000) Cerebral vasculitis in Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Nephrol Dial Transpl 15:246–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ball WS Jr, Prenger EC, Ballard ET (1992) Neurotoxicity of radio/chemotherapy in children: pathologic and MR correlation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 13:761–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Barron TF, Ostrov BE, Zimmerman RA et al (1993) Isolated angiitis of CNS: treatment with pulse cyclophosphamide. Pediatr Neurol 9(1):73–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Baumann RJ, Robertson WC Jr (2003) Neurosarcoid presents differently in children than in adults. Pediatrics 112:e480–e486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Belman AL, Leicher CR, Moshe SL et al (1985) Neurologic manifestations of Schonlein-Henoch purpura: report of 3 cases and review of the literature. Pediatrics 75:687–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Belostotsky VM, Shah V, Dillon MJ (2002) Clinical features in 17 paediatric patients with Wegener granulomatosis. Pediatr Nephrol 17:754–761PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Benseler S, Schneider R (2004) Central nervous system vasculitis in children. Curr Opin Rheumatol 16:43–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Benseler SM, Silverman ED (2007) Neuropsychiatric involvement in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 16:564–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Benseler SM, de Veber G, Hawkins C et al (2005) Angiography-negative primary central nervous system vasculitis in children. Arthritis Rheum 52:2159–2167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Benseler M, Silverman E, Aviv RI et al (2006) Primary central nervous system vasculitis in children. Arthritis Rheum 54:1291–1297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Berlit P (1994) The spectrum of vasculopathies in the differential diagnosis of vasculitis. Semin Neurol 14:370–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Berman JL, Kashii S, Trachtman MS et al (1990) Optic neuropathy and central nervous system disease secondary to Sjögren’s syndrome in a child. Ophthalmology 97:1606–1609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bloom BJ, Wyckoff PM, Meissner HC et al (1998) Neurocognitive abnormalities in children after classic manifestations of lyme disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 17:189–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Borlu M, Uksal U, Ferahbas A et al (2006) Clinical features of Behçet’s disease in children. Int J Dermatol 45:713–716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Bulun A, Topaloglu R, Duzova A et al (2001) Ataxia and peripheral neuropathy: rare manifestations in Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Pediatr Nephrol 16:1139–1141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Buttner A (2011) Review: the neuropathology of drug abuse. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 37(2):118–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Calabrese LH (2002) Diagnostic strategies in vasculitis affecting the central nervous system. Cleve Clin J Med 69(suppl 2):SII105–SII108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Calabrese LH (2009) Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: reflections on 20 years of investigation. Clin Exp Rheumatol 27(1 Suppl 52):S3–S4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Calabrese LH, Duna GF (1996) Drug-induced vasculitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 8(1):34–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Callen DJ, Shroff MM, Branson HM et al (2009) MRI in the diagnosis of pediatric multiple sclerosis. Neurology 72:961–967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cekinmez EK, Cenqiz N, Erol I et al (2009) Unusual cause of acute neurologic deficit in childhood: primary central nervous system vasculitis presenting with basilar arterial occlusion. Childs Nerv Syst 25(1):133–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cellucci T, Benseler SM (2010) Central nervous system vasculitis in children. Curr Opin Rheumatol 22:590–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cellucci T, Pullenayegum E, Tyrrell P et al (2009) Von Willebrand factor antigen: a novel biomarker of disease activity in childhood CNS vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum 60(S10):1573Google Scholar
  47. Chabrier S, Husson B, Lasjaunias P et al (2000) Stroke in childhood: outcome and recurrence risk by mechanism in 59 patients. J Child Neurol 15:290–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Chang CJ, Chang WN, Huang LT et al (2003) Cerebral infarction in perinatal and childhood bacterial meningitis. Q J Med 96:755–762Google Scholar
  49. Chauveheid MP, Lidove O, Papo T et al (2008) Adult-onset homocystinuria arteriopathy mimics fibromuscular dysplasia. Am J Med 121(9):e5–e6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Chen CL, Chiou YH, Wu CY et al (2000) Cerebral vasculitis in Henoch-Schönlein purpura: a case report with sequential magnetic resonance imaging changes and treated with plasmapheresis alone. Pediatr Nephrol 15:276–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Chiaretti A, Scommegna S, Castorina M et al (1995) Intracranial hemorrhage in Schoenlein-Henoch syndrome. Pediatr Med Chir 17(2):177–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Chiu D, Shedden P, Bratina P et al (1998) Clinical features of moyamoya disease in the United States. Stroke 29:1347–1351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Chu CT, Gray L, Goldstein LB et al (1998) Diagnosis of intracranial vasculitis: a multi-disciplinary approach. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 57:30–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Cloft HJ, Phillips CD, Dix JE et al (1999) Correlation of angiography and MR imaging in cerebral vasculitis. Acta Radiol 40:83–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Crisp DE, Siegler RL, Bale JF (1981) Hemorrhagic cerebral infarction in the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. J Pediatr 99(2):273–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Cuellar ML (2002) Drug-induced vasculitis. Curr Rheumatol Rep 4(1):55–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dale RC, Brilot F, Banwell B (2009) Pediatric central nervous system inflammatory demyelination: acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, clinically isolated syndromes, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol 22:233–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dayal S, Wilson KM, Leo L et al (2006) Enhanced susceptibility to arterial thrombosis in a murine model of hyperhomocysteinemia. Blood 108(7):2237–2243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. DeGuzman M, Fishman MA, Lewis RA et al (1998) Chronic neurologic disease with visual, gait, and bladder problems in a male teenager. J Pediatr 132:742–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Del Brutto OH, Lara-Teran J, Sanchez J et al (1996) Cerebrovascular complications of Takayasu’s disease. Rev Neurol 24:803–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Delorio NM (2004) Cerebral infarcts in a pediatric patient secondary to phenylpropanolamine, a recalled medication. J Emerg Med 26(3):305–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Demaerel P, De Ruyter N, F Maes et al (2004) Magnetic resonance angiography in suspected cerebral vasculitis. Eur Radiol 14(6):1005–1012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dengler LD, Capparelli EV, Bastian JF et al (1998) Cerebrospinal fluid profile in patients with acute Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 17:478–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Desai SS, Paulino AC, Mai WY et al (2006) Radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 65:1222–1227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Deshpande PV, Gilbert R, Alton H et al (2000) Microscopic polyarteritis with renal and cerebral involvement. Pediatr Nephrol 15:134–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. DiMario FJ, Brone-Stewart H, Sherbotie J et al (1987) Lacunar infarction of the basal ganglia as a complication of hemolytic uremic syndrome. Clin Pediatr 26:586–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Doyle MK, Cuellar ML (2003) Drug-induced vasculitis. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2(4):401–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Drachmann DA (1963) Neurological complications of Wegener’s granulomatosis. Arch Neurol 8:145–155Google Scholar
  69. Duna GF, Calabrese LH (1995) Limitations of invasive modalities in the diagnosis of primary angiitis of the central nervous system. J Rheumatol 22:662–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Duzova A, Bakkaloglu A (2008) Central nervous system involvement in pediatric rheumatic diseases: current concepts in treatment. Curr Pharm Des 14(13):1295–1301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Ebright JR, Pace MR, Niazi AF (2001) Septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinuses. Arch Intern Med 161:2671–2676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Elbers J, Benseler SM (2008) Central nervous system vasculitis in children. Curr Opin Rheumatol 20:47–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Elbers J, Hutchinson C, Halliday W et al (2008) Brain biopsies in children with small vessel primary CNS vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum 58(S9):S712Google Scholar
  74. Eleftheriou D, Cox T, Saunders D et al (2010) Investigation of childhood central nervous system vasculitis: magnetic resonance angiography versus catheter cerebral angiography. Dev Med Child Neurol 52(9):863–867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Elinson P, Foster KWJ, Kaufman DB (1990) Magnetic resonance imaging of central nervous system vasculitis. A case report of Henoch- Schönlein purpura: reversible MRI changes. Acta Paediatr Scand 79:710–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Eriksson KJ, Boyd SG, Tasker RC (2001) Acute neurology and neurophysiology of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome. Arch Dis Child 84(5):434–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Fauci AS, Haynes BF, Katz P et al (1983) Wegener’s granulomatosis: prospective clinical and therapeutic experience with 85 patients for 21 years. Ann Intern Med 98:76–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Floret D, Delmas MC, Cochat P (1989) Cerebellar infarction as a complication of pneumococcus meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 8:57–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Fredericks RK, Lefkowitz DS, Challa VR et al (1991) Cerebral vasculitis associated with cocaine abuse. Stroke 22(11):1437–1439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Fuchigami T, Inamo Y, Hashimoto K et al (2010) Henoch-schonlein purpura complicated by reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Pediatr Emerg Care 26(8):583–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Fuh B, Lurito J, Grossi M et al (2010) Bilateral internal carotid artery occlusions in a pediatric patient with refractory acute myeloid leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 54:770–772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Fujii J, Kita T, Yoshida S et al (1994) Direct evidence of neuron impairment by oral infection with verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157: H-in mitomycin-treated mice. Infect Immun 62(8):3447–3453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Fujii J, Kinoshita Y, Kita T et al (1996) Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological study of the brain lesions in rabbits given intravenous verotoxin2. Infect Immune 64(12):5053–5060Google Scholar
  84. Fukumoto S, Kinjo M, Hokamura K et al (1986) Subarachnoid hemorrhage and granulomatous angiitis of the basilar artery: demonstration of the varicella-zoster-virus in the basilar artery lesions. Stroke 17:1024–1028PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gallagher KT, Shaham B, Reiff A et al (2001) Primary angiitis of the central nervous system in children: 5 cases. J Rheumatol 28:616–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Garzoni L, Vanoni F, Rizzi M et al (2009) Nervous system dysfunction in Henoch-Schonlein syndrome: systematic review of the literature. Rheumatology (Oxford) 48(12):1524–1529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gedalia A, Cuchacovich R (2009) Systemic vasculitis in childhood. Curr Rheumatol Rep 11:402–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gerraty RP, McKelvie PA, Byrne E (1993) Aseptic meningoencephalitis in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: response to plasmapheresis and absence of CNS vasculitis at autopsy. Acta Neurol Scand 88:309–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Gilden DH, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, LaGuardia JJ et al (2000) Neurologic complications of the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus. N Engl J Med 342(9):635–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Giroud M, Lemesle M, Gouyon J-B et al (1995) Cerebrovascular disease in children under 16 years of age in the city of Dijon, France: a study of incidence and clinical features from 1985 to 1993. J Clin Epidemiol 48:1343–1348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Gomez-Lado C, Martinon-Torres F, Alvarez-Moreno A et al (2007) Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: an infrequent complication in the course of haemolytic-uremic syndrome. Rev Neurol 44:475–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Goncalves C, Ferreira G, Mota C et al (2004) Cerebral vasculitis in Henoch-Schonlein purpura. An Pediatr (Barc) 60(2):188–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Greenan TJ, Grossman RI, Goldberg HI (1992) Cerebral vasculitis: MR imaging and angiographic correlation. Radiology 182:65–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ha TS, Cha SH (1996) Cerebral vasculitis in Henoch-Sch6nlein purpura: a case report with sequential magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Nephrol 10:634–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hajj-Ali RA, Calabrese LH (2009) Central nervous system vasculitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 21:10–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hallemeier CL, Rich KM, Grubb RL Jr et al (2006) Clinical features and outcome in North American adults with moyamoya phenomenon. Stroke 37:1490–1496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hanly JG, Walsh NMG, Sangalang V (1992) Brain pathology in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 19:732–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hassan AS, Trobe JD, McKeever PE et al (2003) Linear magnetic resonance enhancement and optic neuropathy in primary angiitis of the central nervous system. J Neuroopthalmol 23:127–131Google Scholar
  99. Hatachi S, Nakazawa T, Morinobu A et al (2006) A pediatric patient with neuro-Behçet’s disease. Mod Rheumatol 16:321–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Heinrich A, Khaw AV, Ahrens N et al (2003) Cerebral vasculitis as the only manifestation of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a 17 year-old patient with basal ganglia infarction. Eur Neurol 50:109–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hillery CA, Panepinto JA (2004) Pathophysiology of stroke in sickle cell disease. Microcirculation 11:195–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Ho EL, Josephson SA, Lee HS et al (2009) Cerebrovascular complications of methamphetamine abuse. Neurocrit Care 10(3):295–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hoffman GS, Kerr GS, Leavitt RY et al (1992) Wegener granulomatosis: an analysis of 158 patients. Ann Intern Med 116:488–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Hoshino C, Satoh N, Sugawara S et al (2007) Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis complicated by narrowing of the internal carotid artery, subarachnoid abscess and multiple pulmonary septic emboli. Intern Med 46:317–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ichiyama T, Nishikawa M, Hayashi T (1998) Cerebral hypoperfusion during acute Kawasaki disease. Stroke 29:1320–1321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. International Study Group for Behçet’s Disease (1990) Criteria for diagnosis of Behçet’s disease. Lancet 335:1078–1080Google Scholar
  107. Inward CD, Varagunam M, Adu D et al (1995) Cytokines in haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli infection. Arch Dis Child 77:309–313Google Scholar
  108. Iranpour P, Karamifar N, As’adi K (2010) Homocystinuria, typical brain MRI findings. JBR-BTR 93(6):322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Jea A, Smith ER, Robertson R et al (2005) Moyamoya syndrome associated with down syndrome: outcome after surgical revascularization. Pediatrics 116:e694–e701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kato H, Shimosegawa E, Oku N et al (2008) Cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in patients with moyamoya syndrome associated with atherosclerotic steno-occlusive arterial lesions. Cerebrovasc Dis 26:9–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Katsicas MM, Russo R, Taratuto A et al (2000) Primary angiitis of the central nervous system presenting as a mass lesion in a child. J Rheumatol 27:1297–1298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kelly PJ, Furie KL, Kistler JP et al (2003) Stroke in young patients with hyperhomocysteinemia due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. Neurology 60(2):275–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Kerr L, Filloux FM (1992) Cerebral infarction as a remote complication of childhood Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. West J Med 157:179–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Kerr JS, Roach ES, Sinai SH (1989) lntracranial arterial aneurysms complicating Behcet’s disease. J Child Neurol 4:147–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Kerr GS, Hallahan CW, Giordano J et al (1994) Takayasu arteritis. Ann Int Med 120:919–929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Kirkham FJ, Hogan AM (2004) Risk factors for arterial ischemic stroke in childhood. CNS Spectr 9:451–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Kitagawa Y, Gotoh F, Koto A et al (1990) Stroke in systemic lupus erythematosus. Stroke 21(11):1533–1539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kocer N, Islak C, Siva A et al (1999) CNS involvement in neuro-Behçet syndrome: an MR study. Am J Neuroradiol 20:1015–1024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Koehl B, Boyer O, Biebuyck-Gougé N et al (2010) Neurological involvement in a child with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 25:2539–2542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kohrman MH, Huttenlocher PR (1986) Takayasu’s arteritis: a treatable cause of stroke in infancy. Pediatr Neurol 2:154–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Koné-Paut I, Yurdakul S, Bahabri SA et al (1998) Clinical features of Behçet’s disease in children: an international study of 86 cases. J Pediatr 132:721–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kraemer M, Heienbrok W, Berlit P (2008) Moyamoya disease in Europeans. Stroke 39:3193–3200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Krause I, Uziel Y, Guedj D et al (1999) Childhood Behçet’s disease: clinical features and comparison with adult-onset disease. Rheumatology 38:457–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Krespi Y, Akman-Demir G, Poyraz M et al (2001) Cerebral vasculitis and ischaemic stroke in Behcet’s disease: report of one case and review of the literature. Eur J Neurol 8:719–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Krupa B, Cimaz R, Ozen S et al (2011) Pediatric Behcet’s disease and thromboses. J Rheumatol 38:387–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kuhle S, Mitchell L, Andrew M et al (2006) Urgent clinical challenges in children with ischemic stroke. Stroke 37:116–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kuker W (2007) Imaging of cerebral vasculitis. Int J Stroke 2(3):184–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kuker W, Gaertner S, Nagele T et al (2008) Vessel wall contrast enhancement: a diagnostic sign of cerebral vasculitis. Cerebrovasc Dis 26:23–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Laghmari M, Karim A, Allali F et al (2002) Childhood Behçet’s disease: clinical and evolutive aspects. About 13 cases. J Fr Ophtalmol 25:904–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Langford C (2001) Wegener granulomatosis. Am J Med Sci 321:76–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Lanthier S, Lortie A, Michaud J et al (2001) Isolated angiitis of the CNS in children. Neurology 56:837–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Lanthier S, Armstrong D, Domi T et al (2005) Post-varicella arteriopathy of childhood. Neurology 64(4):660–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Laxer RM, Dunn HG, Flodmark O (1984) Acute hemiplegia in Kawasaki disease and infantile polyarteritis nodosa. Dev Med Child Neurol 26:814–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Lee WS, Puthucheary SD, Omar A (1999) Salmonella meningitis and its complications in infants. J Pediatr Child Health 35:379–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lee S, Yoon P, Park S et al (2001) MRI findings in neuro-Behçet’s disease. Clin Radiol 56:485–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Leiguarda R, Berthier M, Starkstein S et al (1988) Ishemic infarction in 25 children with tuberculous meningitis. Stroke 19(2):200–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lie JT (1992) Primary (granulomatous) angiitis of the central nervous system: a clinicopathologic analysis of 15 new cases and a review of the literature. Hum Pathol 23:164–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lloyd-Still JD, Tomasi L (1989) Neurovascular and thromboembolic complications of inflammatory bowel disease in childhood. J Pediatr Gstroenterol 9(4):461–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Lopez-Yunez AM, Garg BP (2001) Non infectious cerebral vasculitis in children. Semin Cerebrovasc Dis Stroke 1(3):249–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Madhusudhan KS, Kandpal H, Ahuja J (2009) Cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis causing reversible narrowing of internal carotid artery. Neurol India 57(1):102–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Maguire JL, deVeber G, Parkin PC (2007) Association between iron-deficiency anemia and stroke in young children. Pediatrics 120(5):1053–1057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Matsell DG, Keene DL, Jimenez C et al (1990) Isolated angiitis of the central nervous system in childhood. J Neurol Sci 17:151–154Google Scholar
  143. Mayberg M, Langer RS, Zervas NT et al (1981) Perivascular meningeal projections from cat trigeminal ganglia: possible pathway for vascular headaches in man. Science 213(4504):228–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Melanson M, Chalk C, Georgevich L et al (1996) Varicella-zoster virus DNA in CSF and arteries in delayed contralateral hemiplegia: evidence for viral invasion of cerebral arteries. Neurology 47:569–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Michelson P (1984) Primary Sjögren syndrome: clinical and immunopathologic features. Semin Arthritis Rheum 14:77–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Miller ST, Macklin EA, Pegelow CH et al (2001) Silent infarction as a risk factor for overt stroke in children with sickle cell anemia: a report from the cooperative study of sickle cell disease. J Pediatr 139:385–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Milner LS, Jacobs DW, Thomson PD et al (1991) Management of severe hypertension in childhood Takayasu’s arteritis. Pediatr Nephrol 5:38–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Miravet E, Danchaivijitr N, Basu H et al (2007) Clinical and radiological features of childhood cerebral infarction following varicella zoster virus infection. Dev Med Child Neurol 49(6):417–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Montaner J, Molina C, Alvarez-Sabin J et al (2000) Neurological manifestations of Schonlein-Henoch purpura: cerebral vasculitis or reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome? Med Clin (Barcelona) 18:677Google Scholar
  150. Moore PM, Cupps TR (1983) Neurological complications of vasculitis. Ann Neurol 14(2):155–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Moorthy AV, Chesney RW, Segar WE et al (1997) Wegener’s granulomatosis in childhood: prolonged survival following cytotoxic therapy. J Pediatr 4:616–621Google Scholar
  152. Morfin-Maciel B, Medina A, Espinosa Rosales F et al (2002) Central nervous system involvement in a child with polyarteritis nodosa and severe atopic dermatitis. Rev Alerg Mex 49(6):189–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Moritani T, Hiwatashi A, Shrier DA et al (2004) CNS vasculitis and vasculopathy: efficacy and usefulness of diffusion-weighted echoplanar MR imaging. Clin Imaging 28:261–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Mudd SH, Skovby F, Levy HL et al (1985) The natural history of homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta -synthase deficiency. Am J Hum Genet 37(1):1–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Murakami M, Ikeda Y, Haraoka J (2010) Cerebellar infarction caused by primary central nervous system angiitis of childhood: case report. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 19(1):77–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Nadeau SE (2002) Neurologic manifestations of systemic vasculitis. Neurol Clin 20:123–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Nagahiro S, Mantani A, Yamada K et al (1996) Multiple cerebral arterial occlusions in a young patient with Sjögren’s syndrome: case report. Neurosurgery 38(3):592–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Nagel MA, Forghani B, Mahalingam R et al (2007) The value of detecting anti-VZV IgG antibody in CSF to diagnose VZV vasculopathy. Neurology 68:1069–1073PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Nakamura H, Takaba H, Inoue T et al (2003) MRI findings of hemolytic uremic syndrome with encephalopathy: widespread symmetrical distribution. J Neuroimaging 13:75–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Ng CC, Huang SC, Huang LT (1996) Henoch-Schonlein purpura with intracerebral hemorrhage: case report. Pediatr Radiol 26(4):276–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Niaudet E, Habib R (1998) Methylprednisolone pulse therapy in the treatment of severe forms of Schonlein-Henoch purpura nephritis. Pediatr Nephrol 12:238–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Nomoto T, Nagao T, Hirabayashi K et al (2006) Cerebral arteriopathy with extracranial artery involvement in a patient with ulcerative colitis. J Neurol Sci 243:87–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Ohtsuka T, Saito Y, Hasegawa M et al (1995) Central nervous system disease in a child with primary Sjögren syndrome. J Pediatr 127:961–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Oner A, Tinaztepe K, Erdogan O (1995) The effect of triple therapy on rapidly progressive type of Henoch-Schonlein nephritis. Pediatr Nephrol 9:6–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Oner AY, Celik H, Akpek S (2006) Central nervous system aspergillosis: magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy features. Acta Radiol 47(4):408–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Oran I, Memis A, Parildar M et al (1999) Multiple intracranial aneurysms in polyarteritis nodosa: MRI and angiography. Neuroradiology 41:436–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Ostergaard JR, Storm K (1991) Neurologic manifestations of Schönlein-Henoch purpura. Acta Paediatr Scand 80:339–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Ozen S, Petty RE (2005) Behçet disease. In: Cassidy JT, Petty RE, Laxer RM, Lindsley CB (eds) Textbook of pediatric rheumatology, 5th edn. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 561–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Ozen S, Besbas N, Saatci U et al (1992) Diagnostic criteria for poliarteritis nodosa in childhood. J Pediatr 120:206–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Ozkaya O, Bek K, Alaca N et al (2007) Cerebral vasculitis in a child with Henoch- Schönlein purpura and familial Mediterranean fever. Clin Rheumatol 26:1729–1732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Ozuer MZ, Ardic FN, Coskun E et al (1999) Carotid artery occlusion due to bacterial paranasal sinusitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 108:87–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Parikh S, Swaiman KF, Kim Y (1995) Neurologic characteristics of childhood lupus erythematosus. Pediatr Neurol 13:198–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Park YD, Belman AL, Kim TS et al (1990) Stroke in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Neurol 28(3):303–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Pawate S, Moses H, Sriram S (2009) Presentations and outcomes of neurosarcoidosis: a study of 54 cases. QJM 102(7):449–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Petty RE, Cassidy JT (2001) Chapter 28: Polyarteritis nodosa and related vasculitides. In: Cassidy JT, Petty RE (eds) Textbook of pediatric rheumatology, 4th edn. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp 595–603Google Scholar
  176. Pomper MG, Miller TJ, Stone JH et al (1999) CNS vasculitis in autoimmune disease: MR imaging findings and correlation with angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 20:75–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Rafay MF, Armstrong D, deVeber G et al (2006) Craniocervical arterial dissection in children: clinical and radiographic presentation and outcome. J Child Neurol 21(1):8–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Reiff A, Miller J, Shaham B et al (1997) Childhood central nervous system lupus; longitudinal assessment using single photon emission computed tomography. J Rheumatol 24(12):2461–2465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Richardson SE, Rotman TA, Jay V et al (1992) Experimental verocytetoxemia in rabbits. Infect Immune 60:4154–4167Google Scholar
  180. Riou EM, Amlie-Lefond C, Echenne B et al (2008) Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the diagnosis and treatment of arterial ischemic stroke. Pediatr Neurol 38:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Rodriguez-Pla A, Stone JH (2006) Vasculitis and systemic infections. Curr Opin Rheumatol 18:39–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Ropper AH, Ayata C, Adelman L (2003) Vasculitis of the spinal cord. Arch Neurol 60:1791–1794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Rottem M, Fauci AS, Hallahan CW et al (1993) Wegener’s granulomatosis in children and adolescents: clinical presentation and outcome. J Pediatr 122:26–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Ruano MM, Castillo M, Thompson JE (1998) MR imaging in a patient with homocystinuria. AJR Am J Roentgenol 171(4):1147–1149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Saltik S, Saip S, Kocer N et al (2004) MRI findings in pediatric neuro-Behcet’s disease. Neuropediatrics 35:190–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Salvarani C, Brown RD Jr, Calamia KT et al (2008) Primary central nervous system vasculitis with prominent leptomeningeal enhancement: a subset with a benign outcome. Arthritis Rheum 58:595–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Sasayama D, Shimojima Y, Gono T et al (2007) Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis complicated by reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Clin Rheumatol 26(10):1761–1763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Satoh J, Miyasaka N, Yamada T et al (1988) Extensive cerebral infarction due to involvement of both anterior cerebral arteries by Wegener’s granulomatosis. Ann Rheum Dis 47:606–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Scattarella V, Pannarale E, D’Angelo V et al (1983) Occipital hemorrhage in a child with Schönlein-Henoch syndrome. J Neurosurg Sci 27:37–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Schoenberg B, Mellinger J, Schoenberg D (1978) Cerebrovascular disease in infants and children: a study of incidence, clinical features, and survival. Neurology 28:763–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Schor NF (2000) Neurology of systemic autoimmune disorders: a pediatric perspective. Semin Pediatr Neurol 7:108–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Schteinschnaider A, Plaghos LL, Garbugino S et al (2000) Cerebral arteritis following methylphenidate use. J Child Neurol 15(4):265–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Seror R, Mahr A, Ramanoelina J et al (2006) Central nervous system involvement in Wegener granulomatosis. Medecine (Baltimore) 85(1):54–65Google Scholar
  194. Shah S, Zimmerman RA et al (1996) cerebrovascular complications of HIV in children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 17(10):1913–1917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Sharfstein SR, Ahmed S, Islam MQ et al (2007) Case of moyamoya disease in a patient with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 16:268–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Sharma BK, Jain S, Radotra BD (1998) An autopsy study of Takayasu arteritis in India. Int J Cardiol 66(Suppl 1):S85–S90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Sheth KJ, Swick HM, Haworth N (1986) Neurologic involvement in hemolytic uremic syndrome. Ann Neurol 19:90–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Silber TJ, Chatoor I, White PH (1984) Psychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus in children and adolescents. A review. Clin Pediatr 23:331–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Singh S, Soloman T, Chacko G et al (2000) Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: an ante-mortem diagnosis. J Postgrad Med 46:272–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Sloan MA, Kittner SJ, Feeser BR et al (1998) Illicit drug-associated ischemic stroke in the Baltimore-Washington young stroke study. Neurology 50(6):1688–1693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Sokol DK, McIntyre JA, Short RA et al (2000) Henoch-Schönlein purpura and stroke: antiphosphatidylethanolamine antibody in CSF and serum. Neurology 55(9):1379–1381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Soon GS, Yau I, Branson H et al (2008) Nonprogressive primary CNS vasculitis in children: immunosuppression reduces recurrent ischemic event risk. Arthritis Rheum 58(S9):S942Google Scholar
  203. Spencer TS, Campellone JV, Maldonado I, Huang N, Usmani Q, Reginato AJ (2005) Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging manifestations of neurosarcoidosis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 34(4):649–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Starke JR (1999) Tuberculosis of the central nervous system in children. Semin Pediatr Neurol 6:318–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Steens SC, Bosma GP, Ten Cate R et al (2003) A neuroimaging follow up study of a patient with juvenile central nervous system systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 62:583–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Steinborn M, Leiz S, Rudisser K et al (2004) CT and MRI in haemolytic uraemic syndrome with central nervous system involvement: distribution of lesions and prognostic value of imaging findings. Pediatr Radiol 34:805–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Steinlin MI, Blaser SI, Gilday DL et al (1995) Neurologic manifestations of pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Pediatr Neurol 13:191–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Strater R, Becker S, von Eckardstein A et al (2002) Prospective assessment of risk factors for recurrent stroke during childhood–a 5 year follow-up study. Lancet 360:1540–1545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Sttibgen JP (1993) Isolated angiitis of the central nervous system. S Afr Med J 83:618–619Google Scholar
  210. Sundel RP, Newburger JW, McGill T et al (1990) Sensorineural hearing loss associated with Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr 117:371–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Swartz RH, Bhuta SS, Farb RI et al (2009) Intracranial arterial wall imaging using high-resolution 3 T contrast-enhanced MRI. Neurology 72(7):627–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Tabarki B, Mahdhaoui A, Selmi H et al (2001) Kawasaki disease with predominant central nervous system involvement. Pediatr Neurol 25:239–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Takagi K, Umezawa T, Saji T et al (1990) Meningoencephalitis in Kawasaki disease. No To Hattatsu 22:429–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Tali ET, Atilla S, Keskin T et al (1997) MRI in neuro-Behçet’s disease. Neuroradiology 39:2–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Tan RM, Chng SM, Seow WT et al (2008) ‘Moya’ than meets the eye: neurofibromatosis type 1 associated with moyamoya syndrome. Singap Med J 49:e107–e109Google Scholar
  216. Tenembaum S, Chitnis T, Ness J et al (2007) Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neurology 68:S23–S36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Terasawa K, Ichinose E, Matsuishi T et al (1983) Neurological complications in Kawasaki disease. Brain Dev 5:371–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Testai FD, Gorelick PB (2010a) Inherited metabolic disorders and stroke part 1: fabry disease and mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes. Arch Neurol 67:19–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Testai FD, Gorelick PB (2010b) Inherited metabolic disorders and stroke part 2: homocystinuria, organic acidurias, and urea cycle disorders. Arch Neurol 67:148–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Trevathan E, Dooling EC (1987) Large thrombotic strokes in hemolytic-uremic syndrome. J Pediatr 111:863–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Tsokos GC, Tsokos M, Leriche NG et al (1986) A clinical and pathologic study of cerebrovascular disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum 16(1):70–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Wasserman BA, Stone JH, Hellmann DB et al (2001) Reliability of normal findings on MR imaging for excluding the diagnosis of vasculitis of the central nervous system. AJR Am J Roentgenol 177(2):455–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Weiner SM, Otte A, Schumacher M et al (2000) Diagnosis and monitoring of central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Arthritis Rheum Dis 59:377–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Weiner SM, Vaith P, Walker UA et al (2004) Detection of alterations in brain glucose metabolism by positron emission tomography in Takayasu’s arteritis. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 31:300–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Wen YK, Yang Y, Chang CC (2005) Cerebral vasculitis and intracerebral hemorrhage in Henoch-Schönlein purpura treated with plasmapheresis. Pediatr Nephrol 20:223–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. White ML, Hadley WL, Zhang Y et al (2007) Analysis of central nervous system vasculitis with diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping of the normal-appearing brain white. AJNR 28(5):933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Williams LS, Garg BE, Cohen M et al (1997) Subtypes of ischemic stroke in children and young adults. Neurology 49:1541–1545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Woolfenden AR, Hukin J, Poskitt KJ et al (1998) Encephalopathy complicating Henoch- Schönlein purpura: reversible MRI changes. Pediatr Neurol 19:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Yaari R, Anselm IA, Szer IS et al (2004) Childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system: two biopsy-proven cases. J Pediatr 145:693–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Yancey CI, Doughty RA, Athreya BH (1981) Central nervous system involvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 24:1389–1395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Yu HH, Lee JH, Wang LC et al (2006) Neuropsychiatric manifestations in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus: a 20 year study. Lupus 15:651–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Zimmerman RA, Bilaniuk LT (2005) Cerebrovascular disease in infants and children. In: Tortori-Donati P (ed) Pediatric neuroradiology, 1st edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 257–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kalthoum Tlili-Graiess
    • 1
  • Nadia Mama-Larbi
    • 1
  • Nadine Girard
    • 2
  • Charles Raybaud
    • 3
  1. 1.Medical school of Sousse, Department of Medical ImagingSahloul University HospitalSousseTunisia
  2. 2.Medical School of MarseilleLa Timone HospitalMarseilleFrance
  3. 3.Derek Harwood-Nash Chair in Medical Imaging, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick ChildrenUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations