Dehydration in Dysphagia
Dehydration--increased depletion of bodily fluids--is a major problem in the elderly. In patients with dysphagia, this imbalance of body fluids is often accelerated due to restricted fluid intake, leading to increased mortality in hospitalized older adults. As a result, the hydration status of patients with a swallowing disorder must be closely monitored and rapidly corrected. In the following, dehydration and fluid balance, as well as their pathophysiology and disorders, will be discussed in detail. Furthermore, risk factors for and signs and symptoms of dehydration in the elderly in general and in dysphagic patients in particular will be outlined. In addition, management of dehydration with oral, enteral and parenteral replacement of fluids will be explained. Parenteral hypodermoclysis, for example, has been shown to be as safe and effective as intravenous replacement, with a similar or better adverse event profile in a number of systematic reviews.
KeywordsBlood Urea Nitrogen Total Body Weight Plasma Osmolality Volume Depletion Serum Sodium Concentration
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