Linac-Based Image Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become the mainstay of modern radiation therapy and it is now possible to produce highly conformal radiation dose distribution. The ubiquitous organ motion either between fractions or within a fraction has been one of the major uncertainties in radiation therapy. This fact coupled with the improved dose conformity and steep dose gradients in IMRT has made accurate target localization and beam targeting all the more important for radiotherapy treatments. Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) utilizes advanced imaging technology to better define and localize the tumor target and is the key to reducing and ultimately eliminating the uncertainties in radiation therapy. This chapter reviews the basics and some of the recent advancements in LINAC-based IGRT. Various image guidance techniques will be discussed, covering the full range of the radiation therapy process, including patient simulation, treatment planning, patient setup, and treatment delivery. In addition to the techniques currently used in clinical practice, some important research topics will also be discussed. We hope to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the concepts and components of the new developments in IGRT, and offer useful hints on how to apply the new modalities in clinical practice.


Dose Distribution Intensity Modulate Radiation Therapy Electronic Portal Imaging Device Tumor Motion Deformable Image Registration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alber M, Paulsen F, Eschmann SM, Machulla HJ (2003) On biologically conformal boost dose optimization. Phys Med Biol 48:N31–N35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Balter JM, Wright JN, Newell LJ, Friemel B, Dimmer S, Cheng Y, Wong J, Vertatschitsch E, Mate TP (2005) Accuracy of a wireless localization system for radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61(3):933–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barker JL Jr, Garden AS, Ang KK, O’Daniel JC, Wang H, Court LE, Morrison WH, Rosenthal DI, Chao KS, Tucker SL, Mohan R, Dong L (2004) Quantification of volumetric and geometric changes occurring during fractionated radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer using an integrated CT/linear accelerator system. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59(4):960–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bedford JL (2009) Treatment planning for volumetric modulated arc therapy. Med Phys 36(11):5128–5138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Benedict SH, Yenice KM, Followill D, Galvin JM, Hinson W, Kavanagh B, Keall P, Lovelock M, Meeks S, Papiez L, Purdie T, Sadagopan R, Schell MC, Salter B, Schlesinger DJ, Shiu AS, Solberg T, Song DY, Stieber V, Timmerman R, Tome WA, Verellen D, Wang L, Yin FF (2010) Stereotactic body radiation therapy: the report of AAPM Task Group 101. Med Phys 37(8):4078–4101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berbeco RI, Jiang SB, Sharp GC, Chen GT, Mostafavi H, Shirato H (2004) Integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS): design considerations of tumour tracking with linac gantry-mounted diagnostic X-ray systems with flat-panel detectors. Phys Med Biol 49(2):243–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Berbeco RI, Hacker F, Ionascu D, Mamon HJ (2007) Clinical feasibility of using an EPID in CINE mode for image-guided verification of stereotactic body radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 69(1):258–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bert C, Metheany KG, Doppke K, Chen GT (2005) A phantom evaluation of a stereo-vision surface imaging system for radiotherapy patient setup. Med Phys 32(9):2753–2762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bharatha A, Hirose M, Hata N, Warfield SK, Ferrant M, Zou KH, Suarez-Santana E, Ruiz-Alzola J, D’Amico A, Cormack RA, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, Tempany CM (2001) Evaluation of three-dimensional finite element-based deformable registration of pre- and intraoperative prostate imaging. Med Phys 28(12):2551–2560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bradley JD, Dehdashti F, Mintun MA, Govindan R, Trinkaus K, Siegel BA (2004) Positron emission tomography in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: a prospective study. J Clin Oncol 22(16):3248–3254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brahme A (2001) Individualizing cancer treatment: biological optimization models in treatment planning and delivery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 49:327–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brock KK, McShan DL, Balter JM (2002) A comparison of computer-controlled versus manual on-line patient setup adjustment. J Appl Clin Med Phys 3:241–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Buck AK, Halter G, Schirrmeister H, Kotzerke J, Wurziger I, Glatting G, Mattfeldt T, Neumaier B, Reske SN, Hetzel M (2003) Imaging proliferation in lung tumors with PET: 18F-FLT versus 18F-FDG. J Nucl Med 44(9):1426–1431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bzdusek K, Friberger H, Eriksson K, Hardemark B, Robinson D, Kaus M (2009) Development and evaluation of an efficient approach to volumetric arc therapy planning. Med Phys 36(6):2328–2339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chang Z, Wang Z, Wu QJ, Yan H, Bowsher J, Zhang J, Yin F-F (2008) Dosimetric characteristics of novalis Tx system with high definition multileaf collimator. Med Phys 35:4460–4463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chao KS, Bosch WR, Mutic S, Lewis JS, Dehdashti F, Mintun MA, Dempsey JF, Perez CA, Purdy JA, Welch MJ (2001) A novel approach to overcome hypoxic tumor resistance: Cu-ATSM-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 49(4):1171–1182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chao M, Li T, Schreibmann E, Koong A, Xing L (2008a) Automated contour mapping with a regional deformable model. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 70:599–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chao M, Xie Y, Xing L (2008b) Auto-propagation of contours for adaptive prostate radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol 53:4533–4542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen L, Price RA Jr, Nguyen TB, Wang L, Li JS, Qin L, Ding M, Palacio E, Ma CM, Pollack A (2004) Dosimetric evaluation of MRI-based treatment planning for prostate cancer. Phys Med Biol 49(22):5157–5170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen J, Morin O, Aubin M, Bucci MK, Chuang CF, Pouliot J (2006) Dose-guided radiation therapy with megavoltage cone-beam CT. Br J Radiol 79(Spec no 1):S87–S98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cho B, Poulsen PR, Sloutsky A, Sawant A, Keall PJ (2009) First demonstration of combined kV/MV image-guided real-time dynamic multileaf-collimator target tracking. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74(3):859–867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Choi NC, Doucette JA (1981) Improved survival of patients with unresectable non-small-cell bronchogenic carcinoma by an innovated high-dose en-bloc radiotherapeutic approach. Cancer 48(1):101–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cootes TF, Hill A, Taylor CJ, Haslam J (1994) Use of active shape models for locating structures in medical images. Image Vis Comput 12(6):355–365Google Scholar
  24. Coselmon MM, Balter JM, McShan DL, Kessler ML (2004) Mutual information based CT registration of the lung at exhale and inhale breathing states using thin-plate splines. Med Phys 31:2942–2948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Court LE, Dong L (2003) Automatic registration of the prostate for computed-tomography-guided radiotherapy. Med Phys 30(10):2750–2757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Craft D, Halabi T, Shih HA, Bortfeld T (2007) An approach for practical multiobjective IMRT treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 69:1600–1607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Crooks SM, Wu X, Takita C, Matzich M, Xing L (2003) Aperture modulated arc therapy. Phys Med Biol 48(10):1333–1344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Crossmann PH, Stuessl A, von Briel C (2005) Cone-beam-CT experience in Aarau. In: ESTRO workshop on image-guided radiotheraphy, pp S9Google Scholar
  29. Das S (2009) A role for biological optimization within the current treatment planning paradigm. Med Phys 36:4672–4682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Datta NR, David R, Gupta RK, Lal P (2008) Implications of contrast-enhanced CT-based and MRI-based target volume delineations in radiotherapy treatment planning for brain tumors. J Cancer Res Ther 4(1):9–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Davies SC, Hill AL, Holmes RB, Halliwell M, Jackson PC (1994) Ultrasound quantitation of respiratory organ motion in the upper abdomen. Br J Radiol 67:1096–1102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. de la Zerda A, Armbruster B, Xing L (2007) Formulating adaptive radiation therapy (ART) treatment planning into a closed-loop control framework. Phys Med Biol 52(14):4137–4153Google Scholar
  33. Debois M, Oyen R, Maes F, Verswijvel G, Gatti G, Bosmans H, Feron M, Bellon E, Kutcher G, Van Poppel H, Vanuytsel L (1999) The contribution of magnetic resonance imaging to the three-dimensional treatment planning of localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 45(4):857–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Delgado Bolton RC, Mucientes Rasilla J, Perez Castejon MJ, Carreras Delgado JL (2009) Positron emission tomography (PET) and PET-CT in renal, bladder and prostate cancer: update. Actas Urol Esp 33(1):11–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Ding GX, Duggan DM, Coffey CW (2008) Accurate patient dosimetry of kilovoltage cone-beam CT in radiation therapy. Med Phys 35:1135–1144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Drake DG, Jaffray DA, Wong JW (2000) Characterization of a fluoroscopic imaging system for kV and MV radiography. Med Phys 27(5):898–905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Eilertsen K, Vestad LN, Geier O, Skretting A (2008) A simulation of MRI based dose calculations on the basis of radiotherapy planning CT images. Acta Oncol 47(7):1294–1302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. El-Mohri Y, Jee KW, Antonuk LE, Maolinbay M, Zhao Q (2001) Determination of the detective quantum efficiency of a prototype, megavoltage indirect detection, active matrix flat-panel imager. Med Phys 28:2538–2550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Endo M, Nishizawa K, Iwai K, Matsumoto M, Yoshida K, Satoh K, Matsusita M, Kusakabe M (1999) Image characteristics and effective dose estimation of a cone beam. Nucl Sci IEEE Trans 46(3):686–690Google Scholar
  40. Ezzell GA, Chungbin S (2001) The overshoot phenomenon in step-and-shoot IMRT delivery. J Appl Clin Med Phys 2:138–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fallone BG, Murray B, Rathee S, Stanescu T, Steciw S, Vidakovic S, Blosser E, Tymofichuk D (2009) First MR images obtained during megavoltage photon irradiation from a prototype integrated linac-MR system. Med Phys 36(6):2084–2088PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fei B, Wheaton A, Lee Z, Duerk JL, Wilson DL (2002) Automatic MR volume registration and its evaluation for the pelvis and prostate. Phys Med Biol 47:823–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fuss M, Boda-Heggemann J, Papanikolau N, Salter BJ (2007) Image-guidance for stereotactic body radiation therapy. Med Dosim 32(2):102–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gambhir SS, Czernin J, Schwimmer J, Silverman DH, Coleman RE, Phelps ME (2001) A tabulated summary of the FDG PET literature. J Nucl Med 42(5 Suppl):1S–93SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gharib AM, Thomasson D, Li KC (2004) Molecular imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology 127(5 Suppl 1):S153–S158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Graham MV, Purdy JA, Emami B, Harms W, Bosch W, Lockett MA, Perez CA (1999) Clinical dose-volume histogram analysis for pneumonitis after 3D treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 45(2):323–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Grills IS, Mangona V, Welsh R, Chmielewski G, McInerney E, Ye H, Kestin LL (2009) Outcomes after stereotactic lung radiotherapy or wedge resection for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). J Clin Oncol 27(15):7516Google Scholar
  48. Gu X, Pan H, Liang Y, Castillo R, Yang D, Choi D, Castillo E, Majumdar A, Guerrero T, Jiang SB (2010) Implementation and evaluation of various demons deformable image registration algorithms on a GPU. Phys Med Biol 55(1):207–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Guerrero T, Zhang G, Huang T-C, Lin K-P (2004) Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method. Phys Med Biol 49:4147–4161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gunther P, Schenk JP, Wunsch R, Troger J, Waag KL (2004) Abdominal tumours in children: 3-D visualisation and surgical planning. Eur J Pediatr Surg 14(5):316–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hara T, Kosaka N, Kishi H (1998) PET imaging of prostate cancer using carbon-11-choline. J Nucl Med 39:990–995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hernando ML, Marks LB, Bentel GC, Zhou SM, Hollis D, Das SK, Fan M, Munley MT, Shafman TD, Anscher MS, Lind PA (2001) Radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity: a dose-volume histogram analysis in 201 patients with lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51:650–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hicks RJ, Kalff V, MacManus MP, Ware RE, Hogg A, McKenzie AF, Matthews JP, Ball DL (2001) (18)F-FDG PET provides high-impact and powerful prognostic stratification in staging newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer. J Nucl Med 42(11):1596–1604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hofer C, Laubenbacher C, Block T, Breul J, Hartung R, Schwaiger M (1999) Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is useless for the detection of local recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol 36:31–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hoh CK, Schiepers C, Seltzer MA, Gambhir SS, Silverman DH, Czernin J, Maddahi J, Phelps ME (1997) PET in oncology: will it replace the other modalities? Semin Nucl Med 27(2):94–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Holdsworth C, Kim M, Liao J, Phillips MH (2010) A hierarchical evolutionary algorithm for multiobjective optimization in IMRT. Med Phys 37:4986–4997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Honda M, Kikuchi K, Komatsu K (1991) Method for estimating the intensity of scattered radiation using a scatter generation model. Med Phys 18:219–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hrbacek J, Lang S, Klock S (2011) Commissioning of photon beams of a flattening filter-free linear accelerator and the accuracy of beam modeling using an anisotropic analytical algorithm. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 80(4):1228–1237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hricak H (1991) Role of imaging in the evaluation of pelvic cancer. Important Adv Oncol 103:103–133Google Scholar
  60. Hsu A, Miller NR, Evans PM, Bamber JC, Webb S (2005) Feasibility of using ultrasound for real-time tracking during radiotherapy. Med Phys 32(6):1500–1512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Husband DJ, Grant KA, Romaniuk CS (2001) MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of suspected malignant spinal cord compression. Br J Radiol 74(877):15–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Islam MK, Purdie TG, Norrlinger BD, Alasti H, Moseley DJ, Sharpe MB, Siewerdsen JH, Jaffray DA (2006) Patient dose from kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography imaging in radiation therapy. Med Phys 33:1573–1582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jaffray DA, Drake DG, Moreau M, Martinez AA, Wong JW (1999) A radiographic and tomographic imaging system integrated into a medical linear accelerator for localization of bone and soft-tissue targets. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 45(3):773–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Jaffray DA, Siewerdsen JH, Wong JW, Martinez AA (2002) Flat-panel cone-beam computed tomography for image-guided radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53(5):1337–1349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Janke A, Zhao H, Cowin GJ, Galloway GJ, Doddrell DM (2004) Use of spherical harmonic deconvolution methods to compensate for nonlinear gradient effects on MRI images. Magn Reson Med 52:115–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Jonsson JH, Karlsson MG, Karlsson M, Nyholm T (2010) Treatment planning using MRI data: an analysis of the dose calculation accuracy for different treatment regions. Radiat Oncol 5:62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kakar M, Nystrom H, Aarup LR, Nottrup TJ, Olsen DR (2005) Respiratory motion prediction by using the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Phys Med Biol 50(19):4721–4728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kauczor HU, Heussel CP, Thelen M (2000) Radiodiagnosis of the lung. Radiologe 40(10):870–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Keall P (2004) 4-dimensional computed tomography imaging and treatment planning. Semin Radiat Oncol 14(1):81–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Keall PJ, Kini VR, Vedam SS, Mohan R (2001) Motion adaptive X-ray therapy: a feasibility study. Phys Med Biol 46(1):1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Keall PJ, Joshi S, Vedam SS, Siebers JV, Kini VR, Mohan R (2005) Four-dimensional radiotherapy planning for DMLC-based respiratory motion tracking. Med Phys 32(4):942–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Keall PJ, Mageras GS, Balter JM, Emery RS, Forster KM, Jiang SB, Kapatoes JM, Low DA, Murphy MJ, Murray BR, Ramsey CR, van Herk MB, Vedam SS, Wong JW, Yorke E (2006a) The management of respiratory motion in radiation oncology report of AAPM Task Group 76. Med Phys 33:3874–3900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Keall P, Vedam S, George R, Bartee C, Siebers J, Lerma F, Weiss E, Chung T (2006b) The clinical implementation of respiratory-gated intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Med Dosim 31(2):152–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Keall PJ, Mageras GS, Balter JM, Emery RS, Forster KM, Jiang SB, Kapatoes JM, Low DA, Murphy MJ, Murray BR, Ramsey CR, Van Herk MB, Vedam SS, Wong JW, Yorke E (2006c) The management of respiratory motion in radiation oncology report of AAPM Task Group 76. Med Phys 33(10):3874–3900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Keall PJ, Cattell H, Pokhrel D, Dieterich S, Wong KH, Murphy MJ, Vedam SS, Wijesooriya K, Mohan R (2006d) Geometric accuracy of a real-time target tracking system with dynamic multileaf collimator tracking system. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 65(5):1579–1584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kim T, Zhu L, Suh T-S, Geneser S, Meng B, Xing L (2011) Inverse planning for IMRT with nonuniform beam profiles using total-variation regularization (TVR). Med Phys 38(1):57–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Klein EE, Hanley J, Bayouth J, Yin FF, Simon W, Dresser S, Serago C, Aguirre F, Ma L, Arjomandy B, Liu C, Sandin C, Holmes T (2009) Task Group 142 report: quality assurance of medical accelerators. Med Phys 36(9):4197–4212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Komaki R, Putnam JB Jr, Walsh G, Lee JS, Cox JD (2000) The management of superior sulcus tumors. Semin Surg Oncol 18(2):152–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Korin HW, Ehman RL, Riederer SJ, Felmlee JP, Grimm RC (1992) Respiratory kinematics of the upper abdominal organs: a quantitative study. Magn Reson Med 23(1):172–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kotzerke J, Volkmer BG, Glatting G, van den Hoff J, Gschwend JE, Messer P, Reske SN, Neumaier B (2003) Intraindividual comparison of [11C]acetate and [11C]choline PET for detection of metastases of prostate cancer. Nucl Med 42:25–30Google Scholar
  81. Kriminski SA, Lovelock DM, Seshan VE, Ali I, Munro P, Amols HI, Fuks Z, Bilsky M, Yamada Y (2008) Comparison of kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography with megavoltage projection pairs for paraspinal radiosurgery patient alignment and position verification. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 71:1572–1580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kristensen BH, Laursen FJ, Logager V, Geertsen PF, Krarup-Hansen A (2008) Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of an open low-field magnetic resonance simulator for radiotherapy treatment planning of brain tumours. Radiother Oncol 87(1):100–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kuban DA, Dong L, Cheung R, Strom E, De Crevoisier R (2005) Ultrasound-based localization. Semin Radiat Oncol 15(3):180–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kubo HD, Hill BC (1996) Respiration gated radiotherapy treatment: a technical study. Phys Med Biol 41(1):83–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kupelian P, Willoughby T, Mahadevan A, Djemil T, Weinstein G, Jani S, Enke C, Solberg T, Flores N, Liu D, Beyer D, Levine L (2007) Multi-institutional clinical experience with the Calypso System in localization and continuous, real-time monitoring of the prostate gland during external radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67(4):1088–1098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kwa SL, Lebesque JV, Theuws JC, Marks LB, Munley MT, Bentel G, Oetzel D, Spahn U, Graham MV, Drzymala RE, Purdy JA, Lichter AS, Martel MK, Ten Haken RK (1998) Radiation pneumonitis as a function of mean lung dose: an analysis of pooled data of 540 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 42(1):1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kyriakou Y, Riedel T, Kalender WA (2006) Combining deterministic and Monte Carlo calculations for fast estimation of scatter intensities in CT. Phys Med Biol 51:4567–4586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lagendijk JJ, Raaymakers BW, Raaijmakers AJ, Overweg J, Brown KJ, Kerkhof EM, van der Put RW, Hardemark B, van Vulpen M, van der Heide UA (2008) MRI/linac integration. Radiother Oncol 86(1):25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Langen KM, Jones DT (2001) Organ motion and its management. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50(1):265–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Langen KM, Meeks SL, Poole DO, Wagner TH, Willoughby TR, Kupelian PA, Ruchala KJ, Haimerl J, Olivera GH (2005) The use of megavoltage CT (MVCT) images for dose recomputations. Phys Med Biol 50:4259–4276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Langer M, Thai V, Papiez L (2001) Improved leaf sequencing reduces segments or monitor units needed to deliver IMRT using multileaf collimators. Med Phys 28:2450–2458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lee L, Le QT, Xing L (2008a) Retrospective IMRT dose reconstruction based on cone-beam CT and MLC log-file. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 70(2):634–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Lee L, Mao W, Xing L (2008b) The use of EPID-measured leaf sequence files for IMRT dose reconstruction in adaptive radiation therapy. Med Phys 35(11):5019–5029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Lemort M, Canizares AC, Kampouridis S (2006) Advances in imaging head and neck tumours. Curr Opin Oncol 18(3):234–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Li T, Xing L (2007) Optimizing 4D cone-beam CT acquisition protocol for external beam radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67(4):1211–1219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Li R, Xing L (2011) Bridging the gap between IMRT and VMAT: dense angularly sampled and sparse intensity modulated radiation therapy (DASSIM-RT). Med Phys (in press)Google Scholar
  97. Li T, Schreibmann E, Thorndyke B, Tillman G, Boyer A, Koong A, Goodman K, Xing L (2005) Radiation dose reduction in four-dimensional computed tomography. Med Phys 32(12):3650–3660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Li T, Xing L, McGuinness C, Munro P, Loo B, Koong A (2006) Four-dimensional cone-beam CT using an on-board imager. Med Phys 33:3825–3833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Li T, Koong A, Xing L (2007) Enhanced 4D cone-beam computed tomography using an on-board imager. Med Phys 34:3688–3695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Li H, Zhu XR, Zhang L, Dong L, Tung S, Ahamad A, Chao KSC, Morrison WH, Rosenthal DI, Schwartz DL, Mohan R, Garden AS (2008) Comparison of 2D radiographic images and 3D cone beam computed tomography for positioning head-and-neck radiotherapy patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 71:916–925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Li R, Jia X, Lewis JH, Gu X, Folkerts M, Men C, Jiang SB (2010) Real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single X-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy. Med Phys 37(6):2822–2826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Lian J, Cotrutz C, Xing L (2003) Therapeutic treatment plan optimization with probability density-based dose prescription. Med Phys 30:655–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lian J, Xing L, Hunjan S, Dumoulin C, Levin J, Lo A, Watkins R, Rohling K, Giaquinto R, Kim D, Spielman D, Daniel B (2004) Mapping of the prostate in endorectal coil-based MRI/MRSI and CT: a deformable registration and validation study. Med Phys 31(11):3087–3094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lin WY, Tsai SC, Hung GU (2005) Value of delayed 18F-FDG-PET imaging in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Nucl Med Commun 26(4):315–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ling CC, Humm J, Larson S, Amols H, Fuks Z, Leibel S, Koutcher JA (2000) Towards multidimensional radiotherapy (MD-CRT): biological imaging and biological conformality. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 47(3):551–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Litzenberg DW, Hadley SW, Tyagi N, Balter JM, Ten Haken RK, Chetty IJ (2007) Synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction. Med Phys 34:91–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Liu IJ, Zafar MB, Lai YH, Segall GM, Terris MK (2001) Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography studies in diagnosis and staging of clinically organ-confined prostate cancer. Urology 57:108–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Liu W, Wiersma RD, Mao W, Luxton G, Xing L (2008) Real-time 3D internal marker tracking during arc radiotherapy by the use of combined MV-kV imaging. Phys Med Biol 53(24):7197–7213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Lo JY, Floyd CE, Baker JA, Ravin CE (1994) Scatter compensation in digital chest radiography using the posterior beam stop technique. Med Phys 21:435–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Lovelock DM, Hua C, Wang P, Hunt M, Fournier-Bidoz N, Yenice K, Toner S, Lutz W, Amols H, Bilsky M, Fuks Z, Yamada Y (2005) Accurate setup of paraspinal patients using a noninvasive patient immobilization cradle and portal imaging. Med Phys 32:2606–2614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ma Y, Lee L, Keshet O, Keall P, Xing L (2009) Four-dimensional inverse treatment planning with inclusion of implanted fiducials in IMRT segmented fields. Med Phys 36:2215–2221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Ma Y, Chang D, Keall P, Xie Y, Park JY, Suh TS, Xing L (2010) Inverse planning for four-dimensional (4D) volumetric modulated arc therapy. Med Phys 37(11):5627–5633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Mac Manus MP, Hicks RJ, Ball DL, Kalff V, Matthews JP, Salminen E, Khaw P, Wirth A, Rischin D, McKenzie A (2001) F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography staging in radical radiotherapy candidates with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma: powerful correlation with survival and high impact on treatment. Cancer 92(4):886–895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Machtay M, Bae K, Movsas B, Paulus R, Gore EM, Komaki R, Albain K, Sause WT Curran WJ (2010) Higher biologically effective dose of radiotherapy is associated with improved outcomes for locally advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma treated with chemoradiation: an analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys (in press)Google Scholar
  115. Mageras GS, Pevsner A, Yorke ED, Rosenzweig KE, Ford EC, Hertanto A, Larson SM, Lovelock DM, Erdi YE, Nehmeh SA, Humm JL, Ling CC (2004) Measurement of lung tumor motion using respiration-correlated CT. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60(3):933–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Mah D, Hanley J, Rosenzweig KE, Yorke E, Braban L, Ling CC, Leibel SA, Mageras G (2000) Technical aspects of the deep inspiration breath-hold technique in the treatment of thoracic cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48(4):1175–1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Maintz JB, Viergever MA (1998) A survey of medical image registration. Med Image Anal 2(1):1–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Mao W, Riaz N, Lee L, Wiersma R, Xing L (2008a) A fiducial detection algorithm for real-time image guided IMRT based on simultaneous MV and kV imaging. Med Phys 35(8):3554–3564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Mao W, Wiersma RD, Xing L (2008b) Fast internal marker tracking algorithm for onboard MV and kV imaging systems. Med Phys 35(5):1942–1949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Marsden PK, Strul D, Keevil SF, Williams SCR, Cash D (2002) Simultaneous PET and NMR. Br J Radiol 75:S53–S59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Martel MK, Ten Haken RK, Hazuka MB, Kessler ML, Strawderman M, Turrisi AT, Lawrence TS, Fraass BA, Lichter AS (1999) Estimation of tumor control probability model parameters from 3-D dose distributions of non-small cell lung cancer patients. Lung Cancer 24(1):31–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. McGarry RC, Papiez L, Williams M, Whitford T, Timmerman RD (2005) Stereotactic body radiation therapy of early-stage non-small-cell lung carcinoma: phase I study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 63(4):1010–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. McInerney T, Terzopoulos D (1996) Deformable models in medical image analysis: a survey. Med Image Anal 1(2):91–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. McQuaid D, Webb S (2008) Target-tracking deliveries using conventional multileaf collimators planned with 4D direct-aperture optimization. Phys Med Biol 53(15):4013–4029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Meeks SL, Buatti JM, Bouchet LG, Bova FJ, Ryken TC, Pennington EC, Anderson KM, Friedman WA (2003) Ultrasound-guided extracranial radiosurgery: technique and application. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 55(4):1092–1101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Men C, Romeijn HE, Jia X, Jiang SB (2010) Ultrafast treatment plan optimization for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Med Phys 37(11):5787–5791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Meng B, Wang J, Xing L (2010) Sinogram preprocessing and binary reconstruction for determination of the shape and location of metal objects in computed tomography (CT). Med Phys 37(11):5867–5875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Mohan R, Zhang X, Wang H, Kang Y, Wang X, Liu H, Ang KK, Kuban D, Dong L (2005) Use of deformed intensity distributions for on-line modification of image-guided IMRT to account for interfractional anatomic changes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61(4):1258–1266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Mok E, Kielar K, Hsu A, Maxim P, Xing L (2010) Dosimetric properties of flattening filter free photon beams from a new clinical accelerator. Med Phys 37(6):3284Google Scholar
  130. Montagnat J, Delingette H (2005) 4D deformable models with temporal constraints: application to 4D cardiac image segmentation. Med Image Anal 9:87–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Morin O, Gillis A, Chen J, Aubin M, Bucci MK, Roach M 3rd, Pouliot J (2006) Megavoltage cone-beam CT: system description and clinical applications. Med Dosim 31(1):51–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Munro P, Bouius DC (1998) X-ray quantum limited portal imaging using amorphous silicon flat-panel arrays. Med Phys 25(5):689–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Murphy MJ, Dieterich S (2006) Comparative performance of linear and nonlinear neural networks to predict irregular breathing. Phys Med Biol 51(22):5903–5914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Murphy MJ, Adler JR Jr, Bodduluri M, Dooley J, Forster K, Hai J, Le Q, Luxton G, Martin D, Poen J (2000) Image-guided radiosurgery for the spine and pancreas. Comput Aided Surg 5(4):278–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Murphy MJ, Balter J, Balter S, BenComo JA, Das IJ, Jiang SB, Ma CM, Olivera GH, Rodebaugh RF, Ruchala KJ, Shirato H, Yin F-F (2007) The management of imaging dose during image-guided radiotherapy: report of the AAPM Task Group 75. Med Phys 34(10):4041–4063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Mutic S, Palta JR, Butker EK, Das IJ, Huq MS, Loo LND, Salter BJ, McCollough CH, Van Dyk J (2003) Quality assurance for computed-tomography simulators and the computedtomography-simulation process: report of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group no. 66. Med Phys 30(10):2762–2792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Neicu T, Shirato H, Seppenwoolde Y, Jiang SB (2003) Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART): average tumour trajectory for lung patients. Phys Med Biol 48(5):587–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Nelson JW, Yoo DS, Sampson JH, Isaacs RE, Larrier NA, Marks LB, Yin F-F, Wu QJ, Wang Z, Kirkpatrick JP (2009) Stereotactic body radiotherapy for lesions of the spine and paraspinal regions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 73:1369–1375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Nijkamp J, Pos FJ, Nuver TT, de Jong R, Remeijer P, Sonke J-J, Lebesque JV (2008) Adaptive radiotherapy for prostate cancer using kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography: first clinical results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 70:75–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Ning R, Tang X, Conover D (2004) X-ray scatter correction algorithm for cone beam CT imaging. Med Phys 31:1195–1202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Okunieff P, Morgan D, Niemierko A, Suit HD (1995) Radiation dose-response of human tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 32(4):1227–1237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Oldham M, Letourneau D, Watt L, Hugo G, Yan D, Lockman D, Kim LH, Chen PY, Martinez A, Wong JW (2005) Cone-beam-CT guided radiation therapy: a model for on-line application. Radiother Oncol 75(3):271–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Otto K (2008) Volumetric modulated arc therapy: IMRT in a single gantry arc. Med Phys 35(1):310–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Park SJ, Ionascu D, Hacker F, Mamon H, Berbeco R (2009) Automatic marker detection and 3D position reconstruction using cine EPID images for SBRT verification. Med Phys 36(10):4536–4546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Pasquier D, Betrouni N, Vermandel M, Lacornerie T, Lartigau E, Rousseau J (2006) MRI alone simulation for conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer: technical aspects. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 1:160–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Perez CA, Stanley K, Rubin P, Kramer S, Brady L, Perez-Tamayo R, Brown GS, Concannon J, Rotman M, Seydel HG (1980) A prospective randomized study of various irradiation doses and fractionation schedules in the treatment of inoperable non-oat-cell carcinoma of the lung. Preliminary report by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Cancer 45(11):2744–2753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Perez CA, Bauer M, Edelstein S, Gillespie BW, Birch R (1986) Impact of tumor control on survival in carcinoma of the lung treated with irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 12(4):539–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Perkins CL, Fox T, Elder E, Kooby DA, Staley CA, Landry J (2006) Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) in gastrointestinal tumors. JOP 7:372–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Pouliot J (2007) Megavoltage imaging, megavoltage cone beam CT and dose-guided radiation therapy. Front Radiat Ther Oncol 40:132–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Pouliot J, Bani-Hashemi A, Chen J, Svatos M, Ghelmansarai F, Mitschke M, Aubin M, Xia P, Morin O, Bucci K, Roach M, Hernandez P, Zheng Z, Hristov D, Verhey L (2005) Low-dose megavoltage cone-beam CT for radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61:552–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Prabhakar R, Haresh KP, Ganesh T, Joshi RC, Julka PK, Rath GK (2007) Comparison of computed tomography and magnetic resonance based target volume in brain tumors. J Cancer Res Ther 3(2):121–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Qian J, Lee L, Liu W, Chu K, Mok E, Luxton G, Le QT, Xing L (2010) Dose reconstruction for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using cone-beam CT and dynamic log files. Phys Med Biol 55(13):3597–3610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Quon A, Gambhir SS (2005) FDG-PET and beyond: molecular breast cancer imaging. J Clin Oncol 23(8):1664–1673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Raaymakers BW, Lagendijk JJ, Overweg J, Kok JG, Raaijmakers AJ, Kerkhof EM, van der Put RW, Meijsing I, Crijns SP, Benedosso F, van Vulpen M, de Graaff CH, Allen J, Brown KJ (2009) Integrating a 1.5 T MRI scanner with a 6 MV accelerator: proof of concept. Phys Med Biol 54(12):N229–N237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Ragan D, Starkschall G, McNutt T, Kaus M, Guerrero T, Stevens CW (2005) Semiautomated four-dimensional computed tomography segmentation using deformable models. Med Phys 32(7):2254–2261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Rahn AN, Baum RP, Adamietz IA, Adams S, Sengupta S, Mose S, Bormeth SB, Hor G, Bottcher HD (1998) Value of 18F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in radiotherapy planning of head-neck tumors. Strahlenther Onkol 174(7):358–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Rasch C, Barillot I, Remeijer P, Touw A, van Herk M, Lebesque JV (1999) Definition of the prostate in CT and MRI: a multi-observer study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43(1):57–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Ren Q, Nishioka S, Shirato H, Berbeco RI (2007) Adaptive prediction of respiratory motion for motion compensation radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol 52(22):6651–6661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Roeske JC, Forman JD, Mesina CF, He T, Pelizzari CA, Fontenla E, Vijayakumar S, Chen GT (1995) Evaluation of changes in the size and location of the prostate, seminal vesicles, bladder, and rectum during a course of external beam radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 33:1321–1329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Ruan D (2010) Kernel density estimation-based real-time prediction for respiratory motion. Phys Med Biol 55(5):1311–1326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Ruan D, Keall P (2010) Online prediction of respiratory motion: multidimensional processing with low-dimensional feature learning. Phys Med Biol 55(11):3011–3025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Ruan D, Fessler JA, Balter JM (2007) Real-time prediction of respiratory motion based on local regression methods. Phys Med Biol 52(23):7137–7152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Ryu SI, Chang SD, Kim DH, Murphy MJ, Le QT, Martin DP, Adler JR (2001) Image-guided hypo-fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to spinal lesions. Neurosurgery 49:838–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Schlemmer H-PW, Pichler BJ, Schmand M, Burbar Z, Michel C, Ladebeck R, Jattke K, Townsend D, Nahmias C, Jacob PK, Heiss W-D, Claussen CD (2008) Simultaneous MR/PET imaging of the human brain: feasibility study. Radiology 248:1028–1035PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Schoder H, Larson SM (2004) Positron emission tomography for prostate, bladder, and renal cancer. Semin Nucl Med 34(4):274–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Schreibmann E, Xing L (2005) Narrow band deformable registration of prostate magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, and computed tomography studies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62(2):595–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Schreibmann E, Chen GTY, Xing L (2006) Image interpolation in 4D CT using a BSpline deformable registration model. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 64:1537–1550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Schwartz DL, Ford EC, Rajendran J, Yueh B, Coltrera MD, Virgin J, Anzai Y, Haynor D, Lewellen B, Mattes D, Kinahan P, Meyer J, Phillips M, Leblanc M, Krohn K, Eary J, Laramore GE (2005) FDG-PET/CT-guided intensity modulated head and neck radiotherapy: a pilot investigation. Head Neck 27:478–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Seibert JA, Boone JM (1988) X-ray scatter removal by deconvolution. Med Phys 15:567–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Seppenwoolde Y, Shirato H, Kitamura K, Shimizu S, van Herk M, Lebesque JV, Miyasaka K (2002) Precise and real-time measurement of 3D tumor motion in lung due to breathing and heartbeat, measured during radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53(4):822–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Seppenwoolde Y, Lebesque JV, de Jaeger K, Belderbos JS, Boersma LJ, Schilstra C, Henning GT, Hayman JA, Martel MK, Ten Haken RK (2003) Comparing different NTCP models that predict the incidence of radiation pneumonitis. Normal tissue complication probability. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 55(3):724–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Sharp GC, Jiang SB, Shimizu S, Shirato H (2004) Prediction of respiratory tumour motion for real-time image-guided radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol 49(3):425–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Sharpe MB, Moseley DJ, Purdie TG, Islam M, Siewerdsen JH, Jaffray DA (2006) The stability of mechanical calibration for a kV cone beam computed tomography system integrated with linear accelerator. Med Phys 33:136–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Shields AF, Grierson JR, Dohmen BM, Machulla HJ, Stayanoff JC, Lawhorn-Crews JM, Obradovich JE, Muzik O, Mangner TJ (1998) Imaging proliferation in vivo with [F-18]FLT and positron emission tomography. Nat Med 4(11):1334–1336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Shimizu S, Shirato H, Kitamura K, Shinohara N, Harabayashi T, Tsukamoto T, Koyanagi T, Miyasaka K (2000) Use of an implanted marker and real-time tracking of the marker for the positioning of prostate and bladder cancers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48(5):1591–1597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Shirato H, Shimizu S, Shimizu T, Nishioka T, Miyasaka K (1999) Real-time tumour-tracking radiotherapy. Lancet 353(9161):1331–1332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Shirato H, Shimizu S, Kunieda T, Kitamura K, van Herk M, Kagei K, Nishioka T, Hashimoto S, Fujita K, Aoyama H, Tsuchiya K, Kudo K, Miyasaka K (2000a) Physical aspects of a real-time tumor-tracking system for gated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48(4):1187–1195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Shirato H, Shimizu S, Kitamura K, Nishioka T, Kagei K, Hashimoto S, Aoyama H, Kunieda T, Shinohara N, Dosaka-Akita H, Miyasaka K (2000b) Four-dimensional treatment planning and fluoroscopic real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy for moving tumor. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48(2):435–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Shirato H, Harada T, Harabayashi T, Hida K, Endo H, Kitamura K, Onimaru R, Yamazaki K, Kurauchi N, Shimizu T, Shinohara N, Matsushita M, Dosaka-Akita H, Miyasaka K (2003) Feasibility of insertion/implantation of 2.0-mm-diameter gold internal fiducial markers for precise setup and real-time tumor tracking in radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56(1):240–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Shiu AS, Chang EL, Ye J-S, Lii M, Rhines LD, Mendel E, Weinberg J, Singh S, Maor MH, Mohan R, Cox JD (2003) Near simultaneous computed tomography image-guided stereotactic spinal radiotherapy: an emerging paradigm for achieving true stereotaxy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 57:605–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Siewerdsen JH, Jaffray DA (1999) Cone-beam computed tomography with a flat-panel imager: effects of image lag. Med Phys 26(12):2635–2647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Siewerdsen JH, Jaffray DA (2000) Optimization of X-ray imaging geometry (with specific application to flat-panel cone-beam computed tomography). Med Phys 27(8):1903–1914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Siewerdsen JH, Jaffray DA (2001) Cone-beam computed tomography with a flat-panel imager: magnitude and effects of X-ray scatter. Med Phys 28(2):220–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Siewerdsen JH, Moseley DJ, Bakhtiar B, Richard S, Jaffray DA (2004) The influence of antiscatter grids on soft-tissue detectability in cone-beam computed tomography with flat-panel detectors. Med Phys 31(12):3506–3520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Sillanpaa J, Chang J, Mageras G, Riem H, Ford E, Todor D, Ling CC, Amols H (2005) Developments in megavoltage cone beam CT with an amorphous silicon EPID: reduction of exposure and synchronization with respiratory gating. Med Phys 32(3):819–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Simpson DR, Lawson JD, Nath SK, Rose BS, Mundt AJ, Mell LK (2009) Utilization of advanced imaging technologies for target delineation in radiation oncology. J Am Coll Radiol 6(12):876–883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Simpson DR, Lawson JD, Nath SK, Rose BS, Mundt AJ, Mell LK (2010) A survey of image-guided radiation therapy use in the United States. Cancer 116(16):3953–3960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Smyczek-Gargya B, Fersis N, Dittmann H, Vogel U, Reischl G, Machulla HJ, Wallwiener D, Bares R, Dohmen BM (2004) PET with [18F]fluorothymidine for imaging of primary breast cancer: a pilot study. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 31(5):720–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Soete G, Verellen D, Tournel K, Storme G (2006) Setup accuracy of stereoscopic X-ray positioning with automated correction for rotational errors in patients treated with conformal arc radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 80:371–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Sonke J, Zijp L, Remeijer P, Van Herk M (2005) Respiratory correlated cone beam CT. Med Phys 32(4):1176–1186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Souza WD, Naqvi SA, Yu CX (2005) Real-time intra-fraction-motion tracking using the treatment couch: a feasibility study. Phys Med Biol 50:4021–4033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Stevens CW, Munden RF, Forster KM, Kelly JF, Liao Z, Starkschall G, Tucker S, Komaki R (2001) Respiratory-driven lung tumor motion is independent of tumor size, tumor location, and pulmonary function. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51(1):62–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Stewart RD, Li XA (2007) BGRT: biologically guided radiation therapy-the future is fast approaching!. Med Phys 34(10):3739–3751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Stroom JC, Koper PC, Korevaar GA, van Os M, Janssen M, de Boer HC, Levendag PC, Heijmen BJ (1999) Internal organ motion in prostate cancer patients treated in prone and supine treatment position. Radiother Oncol 51(3):237–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Suh Y, Yi B, Ahn S, Kim J, Lee S, Shin S, Choi E (2004) Aperture maneuver with compelled breath (AMC) for moving tumors: a feasibility study with a moving phantom. Med Phys 31(4):760–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Terashima M, Hyon M, de la Pena-Almaguer E, Yang PC, Hu BS, Nayak KS, Pauly JM, McConnell MV (2005) High-resolution real-time spiral MRI for guiding vascular interventions in a rabbit model at 1.5 T. J Magn Reson Imaging 22(5):687–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Thongphiew D, Wu QJ, Lee WR, Chankong V, Yoo S, McMahon R, Yin F-F (2009) Comparison of online IGRT techniques for prostate IMRT treatment: adaptive vs repositioning correction. Med Phys 36:1651–1662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Timmerman RD, Bizekis CS, Pass HI, Fong YM, Dupuy DE, Dawson LA, Lu D (2009) Local surgical, ablative, and radiation treatment of metastases. Ca-a Cancer J Clin 59(3):145–170Google Scholar
  199. Tome WA, Meeks SL, Orton NP, Bouchet LG, Bova FJ (2002) Commissioning and quality assurance of an optically guided three-dimensional ultrasound target localization system for radiotherapy. Med Phys 29:1781–1788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Townsend DW (2008) Multimodality imaging of structure and function. Phys Med Biol 53(4):R1–R39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Trofimov A, Rietzel E, Lu H-M, Martin B, Jiang S, Chen GTY, Bortfeld T (2005) Temporo-spatial IMRT optimization: concepts, implementation and initial results. Phys Med Biol 50(12):2779–2798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Uematsu M (2004) CT-guided focal high dose radiotherapy. In: International workshop on 3 dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Nagoya, JapanGoogle Scholar
  203. Van de Steene J, Linthout N, de Mey J, Vinh-Hung V, Claassens C, Noppen M, Bel A, Storme G (2002) Definition of gross tumor volume in lung cancer: inter-observer variability. Radiother Oncol 62(1):37–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Vassiliev ON, Titt U, Ponisch F, Kry SF, Mohan R, Gillin MT (2006) Dosimetric properties of photon beams from a flattening filter free clinical accelerator. Phys Med Biol 51(7):1907–1917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Vedam SS, Keall PJ, Kini VR, Mostafavi H, Shukla HP, Mohan R (2003a) Acquiring a four-dimensional computed tomography dataset using an external respiratory signal. Phys Med Biol 48(1):45–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Vedam SS, Kini VR, Keall PJ, Ramakrishnan V, Mostafavi H, Mohan R (2003b) Quantifying the predictability of diaphragm motion during respiration with a noninvasive external marker. Med Phys 30(4):505–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Wang J, Xing L (2010) A binary image reconstruction technique for accurate determination of the shape and location of metal objects in X-ray computed tomography. J Xray Sci Technol 18(4):403–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Wang H, Dong L, Daniel J, Mohan R, Garden AS, Ang KK, Kuban DA, Bonnen M, Chang JY, Cheung R (2005) Validation of an accelerated demons algorithm for deformable image registration in radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol 50:2887–2905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Wang C, Chao M, Lee L, Xing L (2008) MRI-based treatment planning with electron density information mapped from CT images: a preliminary study. Technol Cancer Res Treat 7:341–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Wang Z, Nelson J, Yoo S, Wu QJ, Kirkpatrick J, Marks BL, Yin F-F (2009a) Refinement of treatment setup and target localization accuracy using three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography for stereotactic body radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 73(2):571–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Wang J, Zhu L, Xing L (2009b) Noise reduction in low-dose x-ray fluoroscopy for image-guided radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74(2):637–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Webb WR, Gatsonis C, Zerhouni EA, Heelan RT, Glazer GM, Francis IR, McNeil BJ (1991) CT and MR imaging in staging non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma: report of the Radiologic Diagnostic Oncology Group. Radiology 178(3):705–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Wen N, Guan HQ, Hammoud R, Pradhan D, Nurushev T, Li SD, Movsas B (2007) Dose delivered from Varian’s CBCT to patients receiving IMRT for prostate cancer. Phys Med Biol 52(8):2267–2276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Wiersma RD, Xing L (2007) Examination of geometric and dosimetric accuracies of gated step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy. Med Phys 34:3962–3970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Wiersma RD, Mao W, Xing L (2008) Combined kV and MV imaging for real-time tracking of implanted fiducial markers. Med Phys 35(4):1191–1198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Wiersma RD, Riaz N, Dieterich S, Suh Y, Xing L (2009) Use of MV and kV imager correlation for maintaining continuous real-time 3D internal marker tracking during beam interruptions. Phys Med Biol 54(1):89–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Winer-Muram HT, Jennings SG, Meyer CA, Liang Y, Aisen AM, Tarver RD, McGarry RC (2003) Effect of varying CT section width on volumetric measurement of lung tumors and application of compensatory equations. Radiology 229(1):184–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Wu C, Jeraj R, Olivera GH, Mackie TR (2002) Re-optimization in adaptive radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol 47(17):3181–3195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Wu H, Sharp GC, Salzberg B, Kaeli D, Shirato H, Jiang SB (2005) Model-based probabilistic prediction of tumor respiratory motion. Med Phys 32(6):1894 abstractGoogle Scholar
  220. Wu Q, Liang J, Yan D (2006) Application of dose compensation in image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Phys Med Biol 51:1405–1419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Wu QJ, Thongphiew D, Wang Z, Mathayomchan B, Chankong V, Yoo S, Lee WR, Yin FF (2008) On-line re-optimization of prostate IMRT plans for adaptive radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol 53(3):673–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Wulf J, Baier K, Mueller G, Flentje MP (2005) Dose-response in stereotactic irradiation of lung tumors. Radiother Oncol 77:83–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Xia P, Chuang CF, Verhey LJ (2002) Communication and sampling rate limitations in IMRT delivery with a dynamic multileaf collimator system. Med Phys 29:412–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Xing L, Li JG, Pugachev A, Le QT, Boyer AL (1999) Estimation theory and model parameter selection for therapeutic treatment plan optimization. Med Phys 26(11):2348–2358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Xing L, Cotrutz C, Hunjan S, Boyer AL, Adalsteinsson E, Spielman D (2002) Inverse planning for functional image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol 47:3567–3578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Xing L, Thorndyke B, Schreibmann E, Yang Y, Li T-F, Kim G-Y, Luxton G, Koong A (2006) Overview of image-guided radiation therapy. Med Dosim 31(2):91–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Yamamoto T, Langner U, Loo BW Jr, Shen J, Keall PJ (2008) Retrospective analysis of artifacts in four-dimensional CT images of 50 abdominal and thoracic radiotherapy patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 72(4):1250–1258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Yan D, Vicini F, Wong J, Martinez A (1997) Adaptive radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol 42(1):123–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Yang Y, Xing L (2005) Towards biologically conformal radiation therapy (BCRT): selective IMRT dose escalation under the guidance of spatial biology distribution. Med Phys 32:1473–1484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Yang Y, Schreibmann E, Li T, Wang C, Xing L (2007) Evaluation of on-board kV cone beam CT (CBCT)-based dose calculation. Phys Med Biol 52(3):685–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Yang D, Li H, Low DA, Deasy JO, El Naqa I (2008) A fast inverse consistent deformable image registration method based on symmetric optical flow computation. Phys Med Biol 53(21):6143–6165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Yenice KM, Lovelock DM, Hunt MA, Lutz WR, Fournier-Bidoz N, Hua C-H, Yamada J, Bilsky M, Lee H, Pfaff K, Spirou SV, Amols HI (2003) CT image-guided intensity-modulated therapy for paraspinal tumors using stereotactic immobilization. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 55:583–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Yin FF, Ryu S, Ajlouni M, Zhu J, Yan H, Guan H, Faber K, Rock J, Abdalhak M, Rogers L, Rosenblum M, Kim JH (2002) A technique of intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) for spinal tumors. Med Phys 29(12):2815–2822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Yin F-F, Guan H, Lu W (2005) A technique for on-board CT reconstruction using both kilovoltage and megavoltage beam projections for 3D treatment verification. Med Phys 32(9):2819–2826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Yin F-F, Das S, Kirkpatrick J, Oldham M, Wang Z, Zhou S-M (2006) Physics and imaging for targeting of oligometastases. Semin Radiat Oncol 16:85–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Yin F-F, Wang Z, Yoo S, Wu QJ, Kirkpatrick J, Larrier N, Meyer J, Willett CG, Marks LB (2008) Integration of cone-beam CT in stereotactic body radiation therapy. Technol Cancer Res Treat 7:133–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Yoo S, Yin FF (2006) Dosimetric feasibility of cone-beam CT-based treatment planning compared to CT-based treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 66(5):1553–1561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Yorke ED, Jackson A, Rosenzweig KE, Merrick SA, Gabrys D, Venkatraman ES, Burman CM, Leibel SA, Ling CC (2002) Dose-volume factors contributing to the incidence of radiation pneumonitis in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 54(2):329–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Yu CX (1995) Intensity-modulated arc therapy with dynamic multileaf collimation: an alternative to tomotherapy. Phys Med Biol 40(9):1435–1449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Zhang Q, Pevsner A, Hertanto A, Hu YC, Rosenzweig KE, Ling CC, Mageras GS (2007) A patient-specific respiratory model of anatomical motion for radiation treatment planning. Med Phys 34(12):4772–4781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Zhu L, Bennett NR, Fahrig R (2006) Scatter correction method for X-ray CT using primary modulation: theory and preliminary results. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 25:1573–1587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Zhu L, Lee L, Ma Y, Ye Y, Mazzeo R, Xing L (2008a) Using total-variation regularization for intensity modulated radiation therapy inverse planning with field-specific numbers of segments. Phys Med Biol 53:6653–6672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Zhu L, Lee L, Ma Y, Ye Y, Mazzeo R, Xing L (2008b) Using total-variation regularization for inverse planning with field specific numbers of segments. Phys Med Biol 53:6653–6672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Zhu L, Xie Y, Wang J, Xing L (2009) Scatter correction for cone-beam CT in radiation therapy. Med Phys 36:2258–2268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Zhu L, Choi K, Xing L (2010) Compressed sensing technique for volumetirc modulated radiation therapy planning. Phys Med Biol (submitted)Google Scholar
  246. Zitov B, Flusser J (2003) Image registration methods: a survey. Image Vis Comput 21(11):977–1000Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Radiation Physics LaboratoryUniversity of SydneyCamperdown 2006Australia
  3. 3.Department of Radiation OncologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations