Common Childhood Vasculitis

  • Kalthoum Tlili-Graiess
  • Nadia Mama-Larbi
  • Sawsen Abroug
  • Lotfi Hendaoui
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) and Kawasaki disease (KD) are the commonest vasculitis in childhood, followed by Takayasu arteritis (TA), and childhood Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). Duplex ultrasonography (US), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA), Computed Tomography (CT) and CT Angiography (CTA), are safer alternatives than conventional angiography. HSP and KD are self-limited with generally a favorable outcome in children. In HSP US detects, with high sensitivity, bowel abnormalities in children and their complications with intussusception as the most frequent abdominal complication. Coronary artery aneurysms are the hallmark of KD. Though conventional coronary angiography remains the gold standard diagnostic modality, Doppler color echocardiography allows non-invasively the detection and the monitoring of coronary artery lesions. PAN involves both visceral and cutaneous arteries but one third of children identified as having PAN were categorized as cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa, a condition localized to the skin. The most frequent pattern of childhood TA is an extensive vascular involvement on both sides of the diaphragm. Magnetic Resonance Angiography emerges as a safe alternative both in diagnosis and monitoring.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Magnetic Resonance Angiography Kawasaki Disease Familial Mediterranean Fever Takayasu Arteritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adlakha A, Rao K, Adlakha K, Ryu JH (1995) A case of pediatric Wegener’s granulomatosis with recurrent venous thromboses treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and laryngotracheoplasty. Pediatr Pulmonol 20:265–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akikusa JD, Schneider R, Harvey EA et al (2007) Clinical features and outcome of pediatric Wegener’s granulomatosis. Arthritis Rheum 57:837–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akpolat T, Akkoyunlu M, Akpolat I et al (2002) Renal Behçet’s disease: a cumulative analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 31:317–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al Abrawi S, Fouillet-Desjonqueres M, David L et al (2008) Takayasu arteritis in children. Pediatr Rheumatol 6:17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allali F, Benomar A, Karim A et al (2004) Behcet’s disease in Moroccan children: a report of 12 cases. Scand J Rheumatol 33:362–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aluquin VP, Albano SA, Chan F et al (2002) Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and follow up of Takayasu’s arteritis in children. Ann Rheum Dis 61(6):526–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amoli MM, Calvino MC, Garcia-Porrua C et al (2004) Interleukin 1ß gene polymorphism association with severe renal manifestations and renal sequelae in Henoch–Schönlein purpura. J Rheumatol 31:295–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Arend WP, Michel BA, Bloch DA et al (1990) The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of Takayasu arteritis. Arthritis Rheum 33:1129–1134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Atagunduz P, Ergun T, Direskeneli H (2003) MEFV mutations are increased in Behcet’s disease (BD) and are associated with vascular involvement. Clin Exp Rheumatol 21(4 Suppl 30):S35–S37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bader-Meunier B, Quartier P, Deschênes G et al (2003) Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Pediatr 10(2):147–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bahabri SA, al-Mazyed A, al-Balaa S et al (1996) Juvenile Behçet’s disease in Arab children. Clin Exp Rheumatol 14:331–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bakkaloglu A, Ozen S, Baskin E et al (2001) The significance of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody in microscopic polyangitis and classic polyarteritis nodosa. Arch Dis Child 85:427–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ballinger S (2003) Henoch–Schonlein purpura. Curr Opin Rheumatol 15:591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Banerjee B, Rashid S, Singh E et al (1991) Endoscopic findings in Henoch–Schönlein purpura. Gastrointest Endosc 37:569–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bartunkova J, Tesar V, Sediva A (2003) Diagnostic and pathogenetic role of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies. Clin Immunol 106:73–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Basoglu T, Akpolat T, Canbaz F et al (1999) Tc-99 m DMSA renal scan in polyarteritis nodosa with bilateral intraparenchymal renal artery aneurysms. Clin Nucl Med 24:201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bastian HM (2008) Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa. In: Ball GV, Bridges SL (eds) Vasculitis, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 365–372Google Scholar
  18. Bayraktar Y, Balkanci F, Kansu E et al (1995) Cavernous transformation of the portal vein: a common manifestation of Behcet’s disease. Am J Gastroenterol 90:1476–1479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Behçet H, Matteson EL (2010) On relapsing, aphthous ulcers of the mouth, eye, genitalia caused by a virus. 1937. Clin Exp Rheumatol 28(4 Suppl 60):S2–S5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Belostotsky VM, Shah V, Dillon MJ (2002) Clinical features in 17 paediatric patients with Wegener granulomatosis. Pediatr Nephrol 17:754–761PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Besbas N, Ozen S, Saatci U et al (2000) Renal involvement in polyarteritis nodosa: evaluation of 26 Turkish children. Pediatr Nephrol 14:325–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bomelburg T, Claasen U, von Lengerke HJ (1991) Intestinal ultrasonographic findings in Schönlein–Henoch syndrome. Eur J Pediatr 150:158–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Boren RJ, Everett MA (1965) Cutaneous vasculitis in mother and child. Arch Dermatol 92:568–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Borlu M, Uksal U, Ferahbas A et al (2006) Clinical features of Behçet’s disease in children. Int J Dermatol 45:713–716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Borrie P (1972) Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa. Br J Dermatol 87:87–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Botnar RM, Stuber M, Kissinger KV et al (2000) Noninvasive coronary vessel wall and plaque imaging with magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 102:2582–2587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brogan PA (2007) What’s new in the aetiopathogenesis of vasculitis? Pediatr Nephrol 22:1083–1094PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brogan PA, Dillon MJ (2000) Vasculitis from the pediatric perspective. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2(5):411–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brogan PA, Bose A, Burgner D et al (2002a) Kawasaki disease: an evidence based approach to diagnosis, treatment, and proposals for future research. Arch Dis Child 86:286–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brogan PA, Davies R, Gordon I et al (2002b) Renal angiography in children with polyarteritis nodosa. Pediatr Nephrol 17:277–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brogan PA, Shah V, Bagga A et al (2003) T cell Vbeta repertoires in childhood vasculitides. Clin Exp Immunol 131:517–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Brunner HI, Gladman DD, Ibanez D et al (2008) Difference in disease features between childhood-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 58(2):556–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brunner J, Feldman BM, Tyrrell PN et al (2010) Takayasu arteritis in children and adolescents. Rheumatology (Oxford) 49(10):1806–1814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Burns JC, Glode MP (2004) Kawasaki syndrome. Lancet 364:533–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Burns JC, Mason WH, Hauger SB et al (2005) Infliximab treatment for refractory Kawasaki syndrome. J Pediatr 146:662–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cakar N, Ozcakar ZB, Soy D et al (2008a) Renal involvement in childhood vasculitis. Nephron Clin Pract 108:c202–c206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cakar N, Yalcinkaya F, Duzova A et al (2008b) Takayasu’s arteritis in children. J Rheumatol 35:913–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Calamia KT, Schirmer M, Melikoglu M et al (2011) Major vessel involvement in Behcet’s disease: an update. Curr Opin Rheumatol 23(1):24–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Caso V, Paciaroni M, Parnetti L et al (2002) Stroke related to carotid artery dissection in a young patient with Takayasu arteritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Cerebrovasc Dis 13:67–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cassidy JT, Petty RE (2005) Polyarteritis nodosa and related vasculitides. In: Cassidy JT, Petty RE (eds) Textbook of pediatric rheumatology, 5th edn. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 512–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chang WL, Yang YH, Lin YT et al (2004) Gastrointestinal manifestation in Henoch–Schönlein purpura: a review of 261 patients. Acta Pediatr 93:1427–1431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chang WL, Yang YH, Wang LC et al (2005) Renal manifestations in Henoch–Schönlein purpura: a 10-year clinical study. Pediatr Nephrol 20:1269–1272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chao BT, Wang XM, Wu LB et al (2010) Diagnostic value of dual-source CT in Kawasaki disease. Chin Med J 123(6):670–674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Chemli J, Kchaou H, Amri F et al (2005) Clinical features and course of Kawasaki disease in central Tunisia: a study about 14 cases collected over a period of three years (2000–2002). Tunis Med 83(8):477–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Chemli J, Boukadida H, Selmi H et al (2007a) Henoch Schonlein purpura in children: clinical and evolutive study of 122 cases. Tunis Med 85(1):54–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Chemli J, Krid S, Boussetta S et al (2007b) Lupus nephritis in childhood: clinical and evolutive study of 14 cases. Tunis Med 85(8):644–650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Chemli J, Hassayoun S, Ketata S et al (2010) Kawasaki disease and Mycoplasma pneumonia infection. Med Mal Infect 40(12):717–719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Chesler L, Hwang L, Patton W et al (2000) Henoch–Schönlein purpura with severe jejunitis and minimal skin lesions. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30:92–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cheung KM, Mok F, Lam P et al (2001) Pancreatitis associated with Henoch–Schonlein pupura. J Paediatr Child Health 37:311–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Cheung YF, O K, Woo CW et al (2008) Oxidative stress in children late after Kawasaki disease: relationship with carotid atherosclerosis and stiffness. BMC Pediatr 8:20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Choong CK, Beasley SW (1998) Intra-abdominal manifestations of Henoch–Schonlein purpura. J Paediatr Child Health 34:405–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Churg A (2008) Pathologic features of vasculitis. In: Ball GV, Bridges SL (eds) Vasculitis, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 97–114Google Scholar
  53. Civilibal M, Sever L, Numan F et al (2008) Dissection of the abdominal aorta in a child with Takayasu’s arteritis. Acta Radiol 49:101–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Connolly B, O’Halpin D (1994) Sonographic evaluation of the abdomen in Henoch–Schonlein purpura. Clin Radiol 49(5):320–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Costello JM, Wax DF, Binns HJ et al (2003) A comparison of intravascular ultrasound with coronary angiography for evaluation of transplant coronary disease in pediatric heart transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 22:44–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Couture A, Veyrac C, Baud C et al (1992) Evaluation of abdominal pain in Henoch–Schönlein syndrome by high frequency ultrasound. Pediatr Radiol 22:12–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dajani AS, Taubert KA, Gerber MA et al (1993) Diagnosis and therapy of Kawasaki disease in children. Circulation 87:1776–1780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Dajani AS, Taubert KA, Takahashi M et al (1994) Guidelines for long-term management of patients with Kawasaki disease. Report from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Circulation 89:916–922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Daoud MS, Hutton KP, Gibson LE (1997) Cutaneous periarteritis nodosa: clinicopathological study of 79 cases. Br J Dermatol 136:706–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. David J, Ansell BM, Woo P (1993) Polyarteritis nodosa associated with streptococcus. Arch Dis Child 69:685–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Deng F, Lu L, Zhang Q et al (2010) Henoch–Schönlein purpura in childhood: treatment and prognosis. Analysis of 425 cases over a 5-year period. Clin Rheumatol 29(4):369–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dengler LD, Capparelli EV, Bastian JF et al (1998) Cerebrospinal fluid profile in patients with acute Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 17:478–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dillon MJ (1989) Classification and pathogenesis of arteritis in children. Toxicol Pathol 17:214–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Dillon MJ (1990) Vasculitic syndromes. In: Woo P, White PH, Ansell BM (eds) Paediatric rheumatology update. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 227–242Google Scholar
  65. Dillon MJ (2007) Henoch–Schönlein purpura: recent advances. Clin Exp Rheumatol 25:S66–S68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Dillon MJ, Eleftheriou D, Brogan PA (2010) Medium-size-vessel vasculitis. Pediatr Nephrol 25:1641–1652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Doyle T, Mullany J (1986) The radiological features of Henoch–Schonlein purpura in the gastrointestinal tract. Aust Radiol 30(4):313–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Duerinckx AJ, Troutman B, Allada V et al (1997) Coronary MR angiography in Kawasaki disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol 168:114–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Ebert EC (2008) Gastrointestinal manifestations of Henoch–Schonlein purpura. Dig Dis Sci 53(8):2011–2019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Eldem B, Onur C, Ozen S (1998) Clinical features of pediatric Behcet’s disease. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 35:159–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Eleftheriou D, Brogan PA (2009) Vasculitis in children. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 23:309–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Eleftheriou D, Dillon MJ, Brogan PA (2009) Advances in childhood vasculitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 21:411–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Engel DG, Gospe SM Jr, Tracy KA et al (1995) Fatal infantile polyarteritis nodosa with predominant central nervous system involvement. Stroke 26:699–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Esaki M, Matsumoto T, Nakamura S et al (2002) GI involvement in Henoch–Schönlein purpura. Gastrointest Endosc 56(6):920–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ettlinger RE, Nelson AM, Burke EC, Lie JT (1979) Polyarteritis nodosa in childhood a clinical pathologic study. Arthritis Rheum 22:820–825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ewald EA, Griffin D, McCune WJ (1987) Correlation of angiographic abnormalities with disease manifestations and disease severity in polyarteritis nodosa. J Rheumatol 4:952–956Google Scholar
  77. Fagbemi AA, Torrente F, Hilson AJ et al (2007) Massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage in isolated intestinal Henoch–Schonlein purpura with response to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. Eur J Pediatr 166:915–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Fain O, Hamidou M, Cacoub P et al (2007) Vasculitides associated with malignancies: analysis of sixty patients. Arthritis Rheum 57(8):1473–1480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Falcini F (2006) Kawasaki disease. Curr Opin Rheumatol 18:33–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Falk RJ, Gross WL, Guillevin L et al (2011) American College of Rheumatology; American Society of Nephrology; European League Against Rheumatism. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s): an alternative name for Wegener’s granulomatosis. Arthritis Rheum 63(4):863–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Fathalla BM, Miller L, Brady S et al (2005) Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa in children. J Am Acad Dermatol 53:724–728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ferriero DM, Wolfsdorf JI (1981) Hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with Kawasaki disease. Pediatrics 68:405–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Fiebig B, Hedrich CM, Heubner G et al (2007) Wegener’s granulomatosis in pediatric patients. Klin Padiatr 219(6):348–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Fieldstone E, Albert D, Finkel T (2003) Hypertension and elevated ESR as diagnostic features of Takayasu arteritis in children. J Clin Rheumatol 9:156–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Filocamo G, Buoncompagni A, Viola S et al (2008) Treatment of Takayasu’s arteritis with tumor necrosis factor antagonists. J Pediatr 153:432–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Fitzgerald J (2000) HSP-without P? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30:5–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Flacke S, Setser RM, Barger P et al (2000) Coronary aneurysms in Kawasaki’s disease detected by magnetic resonance coronary angiography. Circulation 101:E156–E157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Flohr T, Bruder H, Stierstorfer K et al (2002) New technical developments in multislice CT, part 2: sub-millimeter 16-slice scanning and increased gantry rotation speed for cardiac imaging. Rofo 174:1022–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Freeman AF, Shulman ST (2006) Kawasaki disease: summary of the American Heart Association Guidelines. Am Fam Physicians 74:1141–1148Google Scholar
  90. Freeman AF, Crawford SE, Finn LS et al (2003) Inflammatory pulmonary nodules in Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Pulmonol 36:102–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Fresko I, Soy M, Hamuryudan V et al (1998) Genetic anticipation in Behçet’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 57:45–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Fujikawa S, Suemitsu T (1997) Behcet disease in children: a nationwide retrospective survey in Japan. Acta Paediatr Jpn 39(2):285–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Furusho K, Kamiya T, Nakano H (1984) High-dose intravenous gammaglobulin for Kawasaki disease. Lancet 2:1055–1058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gao Y, Zhao MH (2009) Review article: drug-induced antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Nephrology 14:33–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Gardner-Medwin JM, Dolezalova P et al (2002) Incidence of Henoch–Schönlein purpura, Kawasaki disease, and rare vasculitides in children of different ethnic origins. Lancet 360:1197–1202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Gedalia A (2004) Henoch–Schönlein purpura. Curr Rheumatol Rep 6:195–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Gedalia A, Cuchacovich R (2009) Systemic vasculitis in childhood. Curr Rheumatol Rep 11:402–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Gershoni-Baruch R, Broza Y et al (2003) Prevalence and significance of mutations in the familial Mediterranean fever gene in Henoch–Schönlein purpura. J Pediatr 143:658–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Glikson M, Galun E, Schlesinger M et al (1989) Polyarteritis nodosa and familial Mediterranean fever: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature. J Rheumatol 16:536–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Gong F, Shiraishi H, Momoi MY (2002) Follow-up of coronary artery lesions caused by Kawasaki disease and the value of coronary angiography. Chin Med J 115:681–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Gong GW, McCrindle BW, Ching JC, Yeung RS (2006) Arthritis presenting during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr 148:800–805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Gotway MB, Araoz PA, Macedo TA et al (2005) Imaging findings in Takayasu’s arteritis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 184(6):1945–1950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Greil GF, Stuber M, Botnar RM et al (2002) Coronary magnetic resonance angiography in adolescents and young adults with Kawasaki disease. Circulation 105:908–911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Greil GF, Seeger A, Miller S et al (2007) Coronary magnetic resonance angiography and vessel wall imaging in children with Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Radiol 37:666–673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Guillevin L, Mahr A, Callard P et al (2005) Hepatitis B virus associated polyarteritis nodosa: clinical characteristics, outcome, and impact of treatment in 115 patients. Medicine 84:313–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Guillevin L, Pagnoux C, Teixeira L (2008) Polyarteritis nodosa. In: Ball GV, Bridges SL (eds) Vasculitis, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 335–353Google Scholar
  107. Hahn D, Thomson PD, Kala U et al (1998) A review of Takayasu’s arteritis in children in Gauteng, South Africa. Pediatr Nephrol 12:668–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Haliloglu M, Karcaaltincaba M, Toru M et al (2000) CT presentation of Wegener’s granulomatosis in a child: rapidly progressive changes of pulmonary nodules to cavities. Eur J Radiol 35:12–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hall S, Barr W, Lie JT, Stanson AW et al (1985) Takayasu arteritis. A study of 32 North American patients. Medicine 64:402–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hamasaki K, Mimura T, Kanda H et al (2003) Systemic lupus erythematosus and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: a case report and literature review. Clin Rheumatol 22:355–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Hamdan JM, Barqawi MA (2008) Henoch–Schonlein purpura in children. Influence of age on the incidence of nephritis and arthritis. Saudi Med J 29:549–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Hamzaoui A, Salem R, Klii R et al (2011) Co-existing sarcoidosis and Takayasu arteritis: report of a case. Int Arch Med 4:9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hata A, Noda M, Moriwaki R et al (1996) Angiographic findings of Takayasu arteritis: new classification. Int J Cardiol 54(Suppl):S155–S163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Hekali P, Kajander H, Pajari R et al (1991) Diagnostic significance of angiographically observed visceral aneurysms with regard to polyarteritis nodosa. Acta Radiol 32:143–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hochberg MC (1997) Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 40(9):1725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Hoffman GS (1996) Takayasu arteritis: lessons from the American National Institutes of Health experience. Int J Cardiol 54:S99–S102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Holman RC, Belay ED, Curns AT et al (2003) Kawasaki syndrome hospitalizations among children in the United States, 1988–1997. Pediatrics 111:448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Hong CY, Yun YS, Choi JY et al (1992) Takayasu’s arteritis in Korean children: clinical report of seventy cases. Heart Vessels Suppl 7:91–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Hong Y, Jin HS, Park I, Hong SJ (2008) Association of the matrix metalloproteinase3(439C/G) promoter polymorphism with Kawasaki disease in Korean children. Heart Vessels 23:341–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Hotchi M (1992) Pathological studies on Takayasu’s arteritis. Heart Vessels 7:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ikeda K, Ihara K, Yamaguchi K et al (2008) Genetic analysis of MMP gene polymorphisms in patients with Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Res 63:182–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Imirzalioglu N, Dursun A, Tastan B et al (2005) MEFV gene is a probable susceptibility gene for Behcet’s disease. Scand J Rheumatol 34(1):56–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ishikawa K (1988) Diagnostic approach and proposed criteria for the clinical diagnosis of Takayasu’s arteriopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 12:964–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Jain S, Sharma N, Singh S et al (2000) Takayasu arteritis in children and young Indians. Int J Cardiol 75:S153–S157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Jakobs TF, Becker CR, Ohnesorge B et al (2002) Multislice helical CT of the heart with retrospective ECG gating: reduction of radiation exposure by ECG-controlled tube current modulation. Eur Radiol 12:1081–1086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Jennette JC, Falk RJ, Andrassy K et al (1994) Nomenclature of systemic vasculitides: proposal of an international consensus conference. Arthritis Rheum 37:187–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Jeong YK, Ha HK, Yoon CH et al (1997) Gastrointestinal involvement in Henoch–Schönlein syndrome: CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 168(4):965–968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Johnson AE, Gordon C, Palmer RG et al (1995) The prevalence and incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in Birmingham, England. Arthritis Rheum 38:551–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Johnston SL, Lock RJ, Gompels MM (2002) Takayasu’s arteritis: a review. J Clin Pathol 55:481–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Kagimoto S (1993) Duodenal findings on ultrasound in children with Schonlein–Henoch purpura and gastrointestinal symptoms. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 16:178–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Kameyama K, Kuramochi S, Ueda T et al (1999) Takayasu’s aortitis with dissection in systemic lupus erythematosus. Scand J Rheumatol 28:187–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kanegaye JT, Wilder MS, Molkara D et al (2009) Recognition of a Kawasaki disease shock syndrome. Pediatrics 123:e783–e789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Kari JA, Shah V, Dillon MJ (2001) Behçet’s disease in UK children: clinical features and treatment including thalidomide. Rheumatology 40:933–938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Karincaoglu Y, Borlu M, Toker SC et al (2008) Demographic and clinical properties of juvenile-onset Behcet’s disease: a controlled multicenter study. J Am Acad Dermatol 58:579–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kathleen M, O’Neil KM (2009) Progress in pediatric vasculitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 21:538–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kato H, Takahashi K (2008) Kawasaki disease. In: Ball GV, Bridges SL (eds) Vasculitis, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 373–389Google Scholar
  137. Kato H, Ichinose E, Yoshioka F et al (1982) Fate of coronary aneurysms in Kawasaki disease: serial coronary angiography and long-term follow-up study. Am J Cardiol 49:1758–1766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Kato S, Ebina K, Sato S et al (1996a) Intestinal IgA deposition in Henoch–Schönlein purpura with severe gastrointestinal manifestations. Eur J Pediatr 155:91–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Kato H, Sugimura T, Akagi T et al (1996b) Long-term consequences of Kawasaki disease: a 10-to 21-year follow-up study of 594 patients. Circulation 94:1379–1385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Kawasaki T (1967) Acute febrile mucocutaneous syndrome with lymphoid involvement with specific desquamation of the fingers and toes in children. Jpn J Allergy 16:178–222Google Scholar
  141. Kawasaki M, Hizawa K, Aoyagi K et al (1997) Ileitis caused by Henoch–Schönlein purpura: an endoscopic view of the terminal ileum. J Clin Gastroenterol 25:396–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Kerr GS, Hallahan CW, Giordano J et al (1994) Takayasu arteritis. Ann Intern Med 120:919–929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Kimura A, Ota M, Katsuyama Y et al (2000) Mapping of the HLA-linked genes controlling the susceptibility to Takayasu’s arteritis. Int J Cardiol 75:S105–S110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Kinare SG (1970) Aortitis in early life in India and its association with tuberculosis. J Pathol 100:69–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Klein-Gitelman M, Reiff A, Silverman ED (2002) Systemic lupus erythematosus in childhood. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 28(3):561–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Knott PD, Orloff LA, Harris JP et al (2001) Sensorineural hearing loss and Kawasaki disease: a prospective study. Am J Otolaryngol 22:343–348 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Kobayashi T, Sone K, Shinohara M et al (1998) Images in cardiovascular medicine: giant coronary aneurysm of Kawasaki disease developing during postacute phase. Circulation 98:92–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Kohrman MH, Huttenlocher PR (1986) Takayasu’s arteritis: a treatable cause of stroke in infancy. Pediatr Neurol 2:154–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Kone PI, Yurdakul S, Bahabri SA et al (1998) Clinical features of Behçet’s disease in children: an international collaborative study of 86 cases. J Pediatr 132:721–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Kone-Paul I (1999) Behcet’s disease: paediatric features. Ann Med Interne 150:571–575Google Scholar
  151. Kone-Paul I, Bernard JL (1993) Behcet disease in children in France. Arch Fr Pediatr 50(7):561–565Google Scholar
  152. Krause I, Uziel Y, Guedj D et al (1999) Childhood Behçet’s disease: clinical features and comparison with adult-onset disease. Rheumatology 38:457–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Krupa B, Cimaz R, Ozen S et al (2011) Pediatric Behcet’s disease and thromboses. J Rheumatol 38:387–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Kuettner A, Kopp AF, Schroeder S et al (2004) Diagnostic accuracy of multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography in patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 43:831–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Kumar L, Thapa BR, Sarkar B et al (1995) Benign cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa in children below 10 years of age a clinical experience. Ann Rheum Dis 54:134–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Laghmari M, Karim A, Allali F et al (2002) Childhood Behçet’s disease: clinical and evolutive aspects. About 13 cases. J Fr Ophtalmol 25:904–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Lande MB, Gleeson JG, Sundel RP (1993) Kawasaki disease and acute renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 7:593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Lanzkowsky S, Lanzkowsky L, Lanzkowsky P (1992) Henoch–Schonlein purpura. Pediatr Rev 13:130–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Leavitt RY, Fauci AS, Bloch DA et al (1990) The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of Wegener’s granulomatosis. Arthritis Rheum 33:1101–1107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Leff R, Harrer WV, Baylis JC et al (1971) Polyarteritis nodosa in two siblings. Am J Dis Child 121:67–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Levin M, Holland PC, Nokes TJ et al (1985) Platelet immune complex interaction in pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease and childhood polyarteritis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 290:1456–1460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Levine D, Akikusa J, Manson D et al (2007) Chest CT findings in pediatric Wegener’s granulomatosis. Pediatr Radiol 37:57–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Lightfoot RW Jr, Michel BA, Bloch DA et al (1990) The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of polyarteritis nodosa. Arthritis Rheum 33(8):1088–1093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Lin Y-J, Wan L, Wu J-Y et al (2009) HLA–E gene polymorphism associated with susceptibility to Kawasaki disease and formation of coronary artery aneurysms. Arthritis Rheum 60:604–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Lopez-Yunez AM, Garg BR (2001) Noninfectious cerebral vasculitis in children. SeminCerebrovasc Dis Stroke 1(3):249–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Lupi-Herrera E, Sanchez-Torres G, Marcushamer J et al (1977) Takayasu arteritis. Clinical study of 107 cases. Am Heart J 93:94–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Maeda M, Kobayashi M, Okamoto S et al (1997) Clinical observation of 14 cases of childhood polyarteritis nodosa in Japan. Acta Paediatr Jpn 39:277–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Magnoni M, Dagna L, Coli S et al (2011) Assessment of Takayasu arteritis activity by carotid contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 4:e1–e2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Mahdhaoui A, Tabarki B, Bouraoui H et al (2003) Cardiovascular manifestations of Kawasaki disease. Value of echocardiography in the diagnosis and evolution. Tunis Med 81(11):879–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Mahr A, Belarbi L, Wechsler B et al (2008) Population based prevalence study of BD: differences by ethnic origin and low variation by age at immigration. Arthritis Rheum 58:3951–3959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Martini A (1995) Behcet’s disease and Takayasu’s disease in children. Curr Opin Rheumatol 7(5):449–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Mason JC, Cowie MR, Davies KA et al (1994) Familial polyarteritis nodosa. Arthritis Rheum 37:1249–1253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Mavrogeni S, Papadopoulos G, Douskou M et al (2004) Magnetic resonance angiography is equivalent to X-Ray coronary angiography for the evaluation of coronary arteries in Kawasaki disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 43(4):649–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. McMahon CJ, Su JT, Taylor MD et al (2005) Images in cardiovascular medicine. Detection of active coronary arterial vasculitis using magnetic resonance imaging in Kawasaki disease. Circulation 112:e315–e316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Mendes D, Correia M, Barbedo M et al (2009) Behcet’s disease—a contemporary review. J Autoimmun 32(3–4):178–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Mili-Boussen I, Kriaa L, Anane A et al (1999) Ocular features and Behçet disease in children. J Fr Ophtalmol 22:635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Mills JA, Michel BA, Bloch DA et al (1990) The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of Henoch–Schönlein purpura. Arthritis Rheum 33(8):1114–1121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Minkowitz G, Smoller BR, McNutt NS (1991) Benign cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa. Relationship to systemic polyarteritis nodosa and to hepatitis B infection. Arch Dermatol 127:1520–1523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Miyata T, Sato O, Koyama H et al (2003) Longterm survival after surgical treatment of patients with Takayasu’s arteritis. Circulation 108:1474–1480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Moja P, Quesnel A, Resseguier V et al (1998) Is there IgA from gut mucosal origin in the serum of children with Henoch–Schönlein purpura? Clin Immunol Immunopathol 86:290–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Moreno D, Yuste JR, Rodriguez M et al (2005) Positron emission tomography use in the diagnosis and follow up of Takayasu’s arteritis. Ann Rheum Dis 64:1091–1093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Moreno N, Mendez-Echevarra A, de Inocencio J et al (2008) Coronary involvement in infants with Kawasaki disease treated with intravenous c-globulin. Pediatr Cardiol 29:31–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Mori M, Shimizu C, Kuriyama T et al (1994) Behcet’s disease in childhood-case reports and review of literature. Ryumachi 34:34–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Moriwaki R, Noda M, Yajima M et al (1997) Clinical manifestations of Takayasu arteritis in India and Japan: new classification of angiographic findings. Angiology 48:369–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Mrusek S, Kruger M, Greiner P et al (2004) Henoch–Schönlein purpura. Lancet 363:1116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Mukhtyar C, Guillevin L, Cid MC et al (2009) EULAR recommendations for the management of large vessel vasculitis. Ann Rheum Dis 68:318–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Muranjan MN, Bavdekar SB, More V et al (2000) Study of Takayasu’s arteritis in children: clinical profile and management. J Postgrad Med 46:3–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Narchi H (2005) Risk of long term renal impairment and duration of follow up recommended for Henoch–Schönlein purpura with normal or minimal urinary findings: a systematic review. Arch Dis Child 90:916–920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Nardi PM, Haller JO, Friedman AP et al (1985) Renal manifestations of Kawasaki’s disease. Pediatr Radiol 15:116–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Nchimi A, Khamis J, Paquot I et al (2008) Significance of bowel wall abnormalities at ultrasound in Henoch–Schönlein purpura. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 46:48–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Newburger JW, Fulton DR (2007) Kawasaki disease. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 9(2):148–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Burns JC et al (1986) The treatment of Kawasaki syndrome with intravenous gamma globulin. N Engl J Med 315:341–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Beiser AS et al (1991) A single intravenous infusion of gamma globulin as compared with four infusions in the treatment of acute Kawasaki syndrome. N Engl J Med 324:1633–1639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Gerber MA et al (2004) Diagnosis, treatment, and longterm management of Kawasaki disease: a statement for health professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Pediatrics 114:1708–1733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Nieman K, Rensing BJ, van Geuns RJ et al (2002) Non-invasive coronary angiography with multislice spiral computed tomography: impact of heart rate. Heart 88:470–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. O’Neil KM (2009) Progress in pediatric vasculitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 21:538–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Oh J, Han J, Lee S et al (2008) Polymorphisms of human leukocyte antigen genes in Korean children with Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Cardiol 29:402–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Opastirakul S, Chartapisak W, Sirivanichai C (2004) A girl with Takayasu arteritis associated with possible systemic lupus erythematosus. Pediatr Nephrol 19:463–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Ozaki K, Miyayama S, Ushiogi Y et al (2009) Renal involvement of polyarteritis nodosa: CT and MR findings. Abdom Imaging 34:265–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Ozcakar ZB, Yalcinkaya F, Fitoz S et al (2006) Polyarteritis nodosa: successful diagnostic imaging utilizing pulsed and color Doppler ultrasonography and computed tomography angiography. Eur J Pediatr 165:120–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Ozdemir H, Isik S, Buyan N et al (1995) Sonographic demonstration of intestinal involvement in Henoch–Schönlein syndrome. Eur J Radiol 20(1):32–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Ozen S (2009) Mutations polymorphisms in a monogenetic autoinflammatory disease may be susceptibility markers for certain rheumatic diseases: lessons from the bedside for the benchside. Clin Exp Rheumatol 27(2 Suppl 53):S29–S31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Ozen S (2010a) Pediatric onset Behcet disease. Curr Opin Rheumatol 22:585–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Ozen S (2010b) The “other” vasculitis syndromes and kidney involvement. Pediatr Nephrol 25:1633–1639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Ozen S, Fuhlbrigge RC (2009) Update in paediatric vasculitis. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 23:679–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Ozen S, Petty RE (2005) Behçet disease. In: Cassidy JT, Petty RE, Laxer RM, Lindsley CB (eds) Textbook of pediatric rheumatology, 5th edn. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 561–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Ozen S, Besbas N, Saatci U et al (1992) Diagnostic criteria for polyarteritis nodosa in childhood. J Pediatr 120:206–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Ozen S, Ben-Chetrit E, Bakkaloglu A et al (2001) Polyarteritis nodosa in patients with familial mediterranean fever (FMF): A concomitant disease or a feature of FMF? Semin Arthritis Rheum 30:281–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Ozen S, Anton J, Arisoy N et al (2004) Juvenile polyarteritis: results of a multicenter survey of 110 children. J Pediatr 145:517–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Ozen S, Ruperto N, Dillon MJ et al (2006) EULAR/PReS endorsed consensus criteria for the classification of childhood vasculitides. Ann Rheum Dis 65:936–941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Ozen S, Bakkaloglu A, Dusunsel R et al (2007a) Childhood vasculitides in Turkey: a nationwide survey. Clin Rheumatol 26:196–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Ozen S, Duzova A, Bakkaloglu A et al (2007b) Takayasu arteritis in children: preliminary experience with cyclophosphamide induction and corticosteroids followed by methotrexate. J Pediatr 150:72–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Ozen S, Pistorio A, Iusan MS et al (2009) The EULAR/PRINTO/PRES criteria for childhood polyarteritis nodosa. Ankara 2008. Ann Rheum Dis 68(Suppl 3):713Google Scholar
  214. Ozen S, Pistorio A, Iusan SM et al (2010) EULAR/PRINTO/PRES criteria for Henoch–Schönlein purpura, childhood polyarteritis nodosa, childhood Wegener granulomatosis and childhood Takayasu arteritis: Ankara 2008. Part II: final classification criteria. Ann Rheum Dis 69:798–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Ozkaya O, Bek K, Alaca N et al (2007) Cerebral vasculitis in a child with Henoch–Schönlein purpura and familial Mediterranean fever. Clin Rheumatol 26(10):1729–1732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Pan B, Zhang Z, Li Y (2002) Coronary artery angiography in diagnosis of Kawasaki disease with both coronary artery occlusions in 1 case. Chin J Pediatr 40:118Google Scholar
  217. Pantell RH, Goodman BW (1981) Takayasu’s arteritis: the relationship with tuberculosis. Pediatrics 67:84–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Papadodima SA, Sakelliadis EI, Goutas ND et al (2009) Atypical Kawasaki disease presenting with symptoms from the genitourinary system: an autopsy report. J Trop Pediatr 55:55–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Peru H, Soylemezoglu O, Bakkaloglu SA et al (2008) Henoch Schonlein purpura in childhood: clinical analysis of 254 cases over a 3-year period. Clin Rheumatol 27(9):1087–1092PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Pery M, Alon U, Lachter JH, Rosenberger A et al (1990) The value of ultrasound in Schoenlein–Henoch purpura. Eur J Pediatr 150(2):92–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Pinna G, Kafetzis D, Tselkas O et al (2008) Kawasaki disease: an overview. Curr Opin Infect Dis 21:263–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Pivetti-Pezzi P, Accorinti M, Abdulaziz MA et al (1995) Behcet’s disease in children. Jpn J Ophthalmol 39(3):309–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Popa ER, Stegeman CA, Bos NA et al (2003) Staphylococcal superantigens and T cell expansions in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Clin Exp Immunol 132(3):496–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Pradhan M, Meyers KE, Guttenberg M et al (2000) Wegener granulomatosis—an atypical case. Pediatr Nephrol 14:862–871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Ragge NK, Harris CM, Dillon MJ et al (2003) Ocular tilt reaction due to a mesencephalic lesion in juvenile polyarteritis nodosa. Am J Ophthalmol 135:249–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Rees L, Webb NJA, Brogan PA (2007) Henoch Schonlein purpura. Oxford specialist handbook in paediatrics. Paediatric nephrology, 1st edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 310–313Google Scholar
  227. Reimold EW, Weinberg AG, Fink CW et al (1976) Polyarteritis in children. Am J Dis Child 130:534–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Roberti I, Reisman L, Churg J (1993) Vasculitis in childhood. Pediatr Nephrol 7:479–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Roberts PF, Waller TA, Brinker TM et al (2007) Henoch–Schönlein purpura: a review article. South Med J 100:821–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Ronkainen J, Nuutinen M, Koskimies O (2002) The adult kidney 24 years after childhood Henoch–Schönlein purpura: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 360:666–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Rottem M, Fauci AS, Hallahan CW et al (1993) Wegener’s granulomatosis in children and adolescents: clinical presentation and outcome. J Pediatr 122:26–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Rottem M, Cotch MF, Fauci AS, Hoffman GS (1994) Familial vasculitis: report of 2 families. J Rheumatol 21:561–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Rowley A, Eckerley C, Jack H et al (1997) IgA plasma cells in vascular tissue of patients with Kawasaki syndrome. J Immunol 159:5946–5955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Rowley A, Baker S, Shulman S et al (2005) Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are detected by synthetic antibody in ciliated bronchial epithelium during acute Kawasaki disease. J Infect Dis 192:1757–1766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Rowley A, Baker S, Orenstein J et al (2008) Searching for the cause of Kawasaki disease: cytoplasmic inclusion bodies provide new insight. Nat Rev Microbiol 6:394–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Sabater EA, Stanson AW (2008) Cross sectional imaging in vasculitis. In: Ball GV, Bridges SL (eds) Vasculitis, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 247–265Google Scholar
  237. Saddekni S, Horesh L, Leonardo R et al (2008) Angiography and percutaneous interventions. In: Ball GV, Bridges SL (eds) Vasculitis, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 227–245Google Scholar
  238. Salcedo JR, Greenberg L, Kapur S (1988) Renal histology of mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease). Clin Nephrol 29:47–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Sasaguri Y, Kato H (1982) Regression of aneurysms in Kawasaki disease: a pathologic study. J Pediatr 100:225–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Sato Y, Kato M, Inoue F et al (2003) Detection of coronary artery aneurysms, stenoses and occlusions by multislice spiral computed tomography in adolescents with Kawasaki disease. Circ J 67:427–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Sato Y, Matsumoto N, Inoue F et al (2004) Assessment of coronary artery abnormalities in a patient with Kawasaki disease by multislice computed tomography. Heart Vessels 19:297–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Saulsbury FT (1999) Henoch–Schönlein purpura in children. Report of 100 patients and review of the literature. Medicine 78:395–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Saulsbury F (2001) Henoch–Schönlein purpura. Curr Opin Rheumatol 13:35–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Saxe PA, Altman RD (1992) Takayasu’s arteritis syndrome associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum 21:295–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Schmidt WA (2004) Use of imaging studies in the diagnosis of vasculitis. Curr Rheumatol Rep 6(3):203–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Schmidt WA, Both M, Reinhold-Keller E (2006) Imaging procedures in rheumatology: imaging in vasculitis. Z Rheumatol 65(7):652–656 658-61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Segelmark M, Elzouki AN, Wieslander J et al (1995) The PiZ gene of alpha 1-antitrypsin as a determinant of outcome in PR3ANCA-positive vasculitis. Kidney Int 48:844–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Sharieff GQ, Francis K, Kuppermann N (1997) Atypical presentation of Henoch–Schoenlein purpura in two children. Am J Emerg Med 15:375–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Sharma BK, Siveski-Iliskovic N, Singal PK (1995) Takayasu arteritis may be underdiagnosed in North America. Can J Cardiol 11:311–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Sheth AP, Olson JC, Esterly NB (1994) Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa of childhood. J Am Acad Dermatol 31:561–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Shetty AK, Stopa AR, Gedalia A (1998) Low dose methotrexate as a steroid-sparing agent in a child with Takayasu arteritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 16:335–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Shin JI, Kim JH, Lee JS (2008) The diagnostic value of IgA deposition in Henoch–Schönlein purpura. Pediatr Dermatol 25:140–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Shirahama M, Umeno Y, Tomimasu R et al (1998) The value of colour Doppler ultrasonography for small bowel involvement of adult Henoch–Schönlein purpura. Br J Radiol 71:788–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Siegel MJ, Friedland JA, Hildebolt CF (1997) Bowel wall thickening in children: differentiation with US. Radiology 203:631–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Silverman ED, Hebert D (2004) Paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus. In: Isenberg DA, Maddison PJ, Woo P, Glass D, Breedveld FC (eds) Oxford textbook of rheumatology, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 848–862Google Scholar
  256. Singer J, Suchet I, Horwitz T (1990) Paediatric Wegener’s granulomatosis: two case histories and a review of the literature. Clin Radiol 42:50–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Sohn S, Kim HS, Lee SW (2004) Multidetector row computed tomography for follow-up of patients with coronary artery aneurysms due to Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Cardiol 25:35–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Stegmayr BG, Gothefors L, Malmer B et al (2000) Wegener granulomatosis in children and young adults. A case study of ten patients. Pediatr Nephrol 14:208–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Stone MS, Olson RR, Weismann DN et al (1993) Cutaneous vasculitis in the newborn of a mother with cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa. J Am Acad Dermatol 28:101–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Suddleson EA, Reid B, Woolley MM et al (1987) Hydrops of the gallbladder associated with Kawasaki syndrome. J Pediatr Surg 22:956–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Sugimura T, Kato H, Inoue O et al (1994) Intravascular ultrasound of coronary arteries in children: assessment of the wall morphology and the lumen after Kawasaki disease. Circulation 89:258–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Suzuki A, Kamiya T, Kuwahara N et al (1986) Coronary arterial lesions of Kawasaki disease: cardiac catheterization findings of 1100 cases. Pediatr Cardiol 7:3–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Szer IS (1996) Henoch–Schönlein purpura: when and how to treat. J Rheumatol 23:1661–1665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Tabarki B, Mahdhaoui A, Selmi H et al (2001) Kawasaki disease with predominant central nervous system involvement. Pediatr Neurol 25(3):239–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Tann OR, Tulloh RM, Hamilton MC (2008) Takayasu’s disease: a review. Cardiol Young 18:250–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Tasdemir I, Turgan C, Emri S et al (1988) Spontaneous perirenal haematoma secondary to polyarteritis nodosa. Br J Urol 62:219–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Taubert KA, Rowley AH, Shulman ST (1991) Nationwide survey of Kawasaki disease and acute rheumatic fever. J Pediatr 1(9):279–282Google Scholar
  268. Taubert KA, Rowley AH, Shulman ST (1994) Seven-year national survey of Kawasaki disease and acute rheumatic fever. Pediatr Infect Dis J 13:704–708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Thabet F, Bellara I, Tabarki B et al (2004) Ischemic colitis and hemophagocytosis complicating Kawasaki disease. Arch Pediatr 11(3):226–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Thabet F, Bafaqih H, Al-Mohaimeed S et al (2011) Shock: an unusual presentation of Kawasaki disease. Eur J Pediatr 170:941–943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. The International Study Group for Behçet’s Disease (1992) Evaluation of diagnostic (‘classification’) criteria in Behçet’s disease—towards internationally agreed criteria. Br J Rheumatol 31:299–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Tio TL, Tytgat GN (1986) Endoscopic ultrasonography of normal and pathologic upper gastrointestinal wall structure: comparison of studies in vivo and in vitro with histology. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 123:27–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Tizard EJ, Dillon MJ (2006) Wegener’s granulomatosis, polyarteritis nodosa, Behcet’s disease and relapsing polychondritis. In: Harper J, Oranje A, Prose N (eds) Textbook of pediatric dermatology, 2nd edn. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 1937–1952Google Scholar
  274. Tomita S, Chung K, Mas M et al (1992) Peripheral gangrene associated with Kawasaki disease. Clin Infect Dis 14:121–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Trapani S, Micheli A, Grisolia F et al (2005) Henoch Schonlein purpura in childhood: epidemiological and clinical analysis of 150 cases over a 5-year period and review of literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum 35:143–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Tremoulet A, Best B, Song S et al (2008) Resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin in children with Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr 153:117–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Tunca M, Akar S, Onen F, Ozdogan H et al (2005) Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) in Turkey: results of a nationwide multicenter study. Medicine 84:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Turkay S, Odemis E, Karadag A (2006) Kawasaki disease onset during concomitant infections with varicella zoster and Epstein–Barr virus. J Natl Med Assoc 98(8):1350–1352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Uchiyama K, Yoshida N, Mizobuchi M et al (2002) Mucosal IgA deposition in Henoch–Schönlein purpura with duodenal ulcer. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:728–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Uehara R, Belay E, Maddox R et al (2008) Analysis of potential risk factors associated with nonresponse to initial intravenous immunoglobulin treatment among Kawasaki disease patients in Japan. Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:155–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Vasavada P (2004) Ultrasound evaluation of acute abdominal emergencies in infants and children. Radiol Clin North Am 42:445–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Von Scheven E, Lu TT, Emery HM et al (2003) Thrombosis and pediatric Wegener’s granulomatosis: acquired and genetic risk factors for hypercoagulability. Arthritis Rheum 49(6):862–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Wadsworth DT, Siegel MJ, Day DL (1994) Wegener’s granulomatosis in children: chest radiographic manifestations. AJR Am J Roentgenol 163:901–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Watts RA, Scott DG (2008) Epidemiology of vasculitis. In: Ball GV, Bridges SL (eds) Vasculitis, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 7–21Google Scholar
  285. Weber TR, Grosfeld JL, Bergstein J, Fitzgerald J (1983) Massive gastric hemorrhage: an unusual complication of Henoch–Schönlein purpura. J Pediatr Surg 18:576–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Wiggelinkhuizen J, Cremin BJ (1978) Takayasu arteritis and renovascular hypertension in childhood. Pediatrics 62:209–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Wiik A (2005) Clinical and laboratory characteristics of drug-induced vasculitic syndromes. Arthritis Res Ther 7(5):191–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Wilder MS, Palinkas LA, Kao AS et al (2007) Delayed diagnosis by physicians contributes to the development of coronary artery aneurysms in children with Kawasaki syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:256–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Wong SN, Shah V, Dillon MJ (1998) Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Arch Dis Child 79:246–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Wood LE, Tulloh RM (2008) Kawasaki disease in children. Heart 95(10):787–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Yanagawa H, Nakamura Y, Kawasaki T et al (1986) Nationwide epidemic of Kawasaki disease in Japan during winter of 1985–86. Lancet 2:1138–1139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Yanagawa H, Tuohong Z, Oki I et al (1999) Effects of gamma-globulin on the cardiac sequelae of Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Cardiology 20:248–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Yanagawa H, Nakamura Y, Yashiro M et al (2006) Incidence of Kawasaki disease in Japan: the nationwide survey of 1999–2002. Pediatr Int 48:356–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Zhang Y, Huang X (2008) Gastrointestinal involvement in Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Scand J Gastroenterol 43:1038–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Zheng D, Fan D, Liu L (1992) Takayasu arteritis in China: a report of 530 cases. Heart Vessels Suppl 7:32–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Zhu WH, Shen LG, Neubauer H (2010) Clinical characteristics, interdisciplinary treatment and follow-up of 14 children with Takayasu arterities. World J Pediatr 6(4):342–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Zulian F, Falcini F, Zancan L et al (2003) Acute surgical abdomen as presenting manifestation of Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr 142:731–735PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Velag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kalthoum Tlili-Graiess
    • 1
  • Nadia Mama-Larbi
    • 1
  • Sawsen Abroug
    • 2
  • Lotfi Hendaoui
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medical Imaging, Medical School of SousseSahloul University HospitalSousseTunisia
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics, Medical School of SousseSahloul University HospitalSousseTunusia
  3. 3.Department of Medical Imaging and Imaging Guided Interventions, Medical School of TunisMongi Slim University HospitalSidi DaoudTunisia

Personalised recommendations