Radiobiology of Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

  • Chang W. Song
  • Heonjoo Park
  • Robert J. Griffin
  • Seymour H. Levitt
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


In recent years, increasing number of cancer patients are treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), which deliver hypofractionated irradiation with high-dose per fraction . It is highly likely that the radiobiological principles such as 4 Rs (Reoxygenation, Repair, Redistribution, Repopulation) for the conventional fractionated radiotherapy with small-dose per fractions do not apply for SRS and SBRT. Reoxygenation: When tumors are exposed to high-dose per fraction, e.g. >10 Gy, significant vascular damage will occur. Consequently, intratumor environment becomes hypoxic and acidic, which not only will prevent reoxygenation of hypoxic cells but also will cause indirect cell death. Repair: delivery of SRS or SBRT lasts considerable lengths of time, which may allow repair of sub-lethal radiation damage during the irradiation exposure. Redistribution: high-dose irradiation prevents cell cycle progression and cells undergo interphase death in the cell cycle phases where they are irradiated. Repopulation: Since SRS or SBRT treatment is completed within 1-2 weeks, repopulation of tumor cells during the course of treatment may be negligible. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model , which is used to calculate isoeffect doses for different hyperfractionated irradiation schemes, may be applied for hypofractionated SRS or SBRT, provided that indirect cell death due to vascular damage is negligible.


Cancer Stem Cell Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Vascular Damage Cell Cycle Phase Hypoxic Cell 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chang W. Song
    • 1
  • Heonjoo Park
    • 1
    • 2
  • Robert J. Griffin
    • 1
  • Seymour H. Levitt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation OncologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Inha universityInchonKorea

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