Contrast Enhanced US of the Scrotum

  • Michele Bertolotto
  • Massimo Valentino
  • Paul S. Sidhu
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


High performance contrast specific modes are currently implemented for superficial probes, and an increasing interest is now rising for use of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in evaluation of scrotal pathologies. Microbubble contrast agents are highly sensitive in assessing presence or absence of vascular flow. While use in evaluation of patients with high degree torsion has limited clinical application, at least in adults, since this pathological condition can be effectively evaluated with conventional color Doppler ultrasound alone, diagnosis of segmental testicular infarction is improved. Virtually all scrotal tumors are vascularized at CEUS. This technique does not allow differentiation among different histotypes, but provides a useful instrument for the differential diagnosis between tumors with cystic components and complex benign cysts. In inflammation, abscesses are clearly defined, and in trauma patients viability of the testicular parenchyma is assessed. Preliminary investigation suggests use of microbubble contrast agents to evaluate infertile patients with varicocele, and for therapeutic applications.


Color Doppler Ultrasound Epidermoid Cyst Ultrasound Contrast Agent Testicular Torsion Microbubble Contrast Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Bertolotto
    • 1
  • Massimo Valentino
    • 2
  • Paul S. Sidhu
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Trieste, Ospedale di CattinaraTriesteItaly
  2. 2.S.S.D. Radiologia d’Urgenza, Dipartimento di Radiologia e Diagnostica per Immagini Azienda OspedalieraUniversitaria di Parma Ospedale MaggioreParmaItaly
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyKing’s College London, King’s College Hospital, Denmark HillLondonUK

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