Imaging the Undescended Testis

  • Eriz Özden
  • Ahmet T. Turgut
  • Vikram S. Dogra
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Undescended testis, i.e., cryptorchidism, implies failure of testicular descent into the scrotum with concomitant abnormality in testicular development. It represents an important clinical entity because of its close association with infertility and testicular malignancy. Abnormalities in anatomical and hormonal factors involved in embryogenesis and testicular descent may all have a role in the etiology of cryptorchidism, though the exact mechanism is not fully understood. The diagnosis of the entity depends mainly on laparoscopy and the role of imaging is controversial, though diagnostic imaging has been considered to be helpful particularly for the evaluation of patients with a nonpalpable undescended testis. US is the most common diagnostic imaging study employed in the evaluation of cryptorchidism. The technique is accepted as the first step after clinical evaluation, whereas MRI has been proposed as the modality of choice preoperatively when US findings are negative.


Spermatic Cord Inguinal Canal Undescended Testis Magnetic Resonance Venography Internal Inguinal Ring 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We would like to acknowledge our sincere thanks to Tarkan Soygür, MD for his providing Figs. 1, 2, and 4 and Suat Fitöz, MD for his providing Fig. 8.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eriz Özden
    • 1
  • Ahmet T. Turgut
    • 2
  • Vikram S. Dogra
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of UrologyAnkara University School of MedicineAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyAnkara Training and Research HospitalAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Imaging SciencesUniversity of Rochester School of MedicineRochesterUSA

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