Imaging the Infertile Male-2: Obstructive Syndromes and Other Disorders
The evaluation of infertile men begins with a detailed clinical history and physical examination and then proceeds to laboratory test including semen analysis, hormonal assays, sperm function test, and genetic test. Imaging studies can be used selectively as part of the comprehensive evaluation of male infertility. In this chapter, we review the spectrum of diseases responsible for male infertility, discuss appropriate imaging modalities to be proven for specific clinical settings, and illustrate characteristic imaging findings that permit specific diagnosis. We also discuss how imaging studies may be used to distinguish defects of sperm production from obstruction of sperm passage. The discussion is divided into three main categories: obstruction in sperm passage, impairment in sperm function, and defect in sperm genesis.
KeywordsCongenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Male Infertility Transrectal Ultrasound Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Ejaculatory Duct
- CA BryanPJ, Morrison SC et al (1988) US findings in adrenogenital syndrome. J US Med 7:675–679Google Scholar
- Daudin M, Bieth E, Bujan L et al (2000) Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens: clinical characteristics, biological parameters, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutations, and implications for genetic counseling. Fertil Steril 74:1164–1174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar