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The Infertile Male-4: Management of Obstructive Azoospermia

  • Giovanni Liguori
  • Carlo Trombetta
  • Alessio Zordani
  • Renata Napoli
  • Giangiacomo Ollandini
  • Giorgio Mazzon
  • Bernardino de Concilio
  • Emanuele Belgrano
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Azoospermia is the total absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate. It is found in 10–15% of male infertility cases and is caused by a testicular insufficiency in the majority of patients. Obstructive azoospermia is less frequent and arises in 15–20% of men with azoospermia. Most causes of male infertility are treatable, and many treatments restore the ability to father a children naturally. In case of vasal or epididymal obstruction, microsurgical reconstruction of the seminal pathways, if possible, remains the safest and most cost-effective treatment option for these patients, allowing natural conception in many cases. Not all men with obstructive azoospermia are treatable by microsurgical reconstruction. In such situations, various sperm-retrieval techniques can be employed to take sperm for use with in vitro fertilization (IVF) via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Keywords

Ejaculatory Duct Testicular Sperm Sperm Retrieval Obstructive Azoospermia Microsurgical Reconstruction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Liguori
    • 1
  • Carlo Trombetta
    • 1
  • Alessio Zordani
    • 1
  • Renata Napoli
    • 1
  • Giangiacomo Ollandini
    • 1
  • Giorgio Mazzon
    • 1
  • Bernardino de Concilio
    • 1
  • Emanuele Belgrano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of TriesteTriesteItaly

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