The Infertile Male-3: Endocrinological Evaluation

  • Francesco Lotti
  • Giovanni Corona
  • Csilla Gabriella Krausz
  • Gianni Forti
  • Mario Maggi
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


About 14% of European couples suffer from reproductive health disorders, which can result in infertility. In 50% of involuntarily childless couples a male infertility associated factor is found together with abnormal semen parameters. The etiology of male infertility can be related to several congenital or acquired factors acting at pre-testicular (10%), testicular (75%), or post-testicular (15%) level. In 30–40% of cases, no male infertility associated factor is found (idiopathic male infertility). Idiopathic male infertility may be explained by several factors, including endocrine disruption as a result of environmental pollution, reactive oxygen species or genetic abnormalities. The diagnostic work up of the infertile male should include careful medical and reproductive history collection, physical examination, sperm analysis, and hormone evaluation followed by second and, when useful, third level examinations. The general endocrinologist can easily perform a first-line diagnostic evaluation of the infertile couple as the hormonal assessment has an important role in the initial workup of both partners, and semen analysis can be easily interpreted. It is also rather obvious that if the infertility has an endocrine cause the endocrinologist has an important role in the treatment. On the other hand, further diagnostic work up of the couple requires appropriate knowledge of the physiology and pathology of the male and female reproductive tract as well as of second- and third-level diagnostic procedures.


Seminal Vesicle Male Infertility Premature Ejaculation Testicular Volume Klinefelter Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Lotti
    • 1
  • Giovanni Corona
    • 1
  • Csilla Gabriella Krausz
    • 1
  • Gianni Forti
    • 1
  • Mario Maggi
    • 1
  1. 1.Sexual Medicine and Andrology Unit, Department of Clinical PhysiopathologyUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

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