The Infertile Male-2: Sperm Analysis

  • Loredana Gandini
  • Andrea Lenzi
  • Francesco Lombardo
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Semen analysis remains the most important diagnostic tool for the study of male infertility. For this reason, as well as the ease with which it can be performed, this analysis should be among the first steps in cases of suspected infertility, carried out before subjecting the female partner to long and complex diagnostic tests. The test’s efficacy depends on the experience and ability of the seminologist, who must first carry out a subjective analysis of fundamental parameters such as motility and morphology. Laboratories specializing in these analyses have applied different criteria for the evaluation of sperm parameters, making it extremely difficult to compare their results. Despite the considerable progress made in the standardization of semen analysis, there are still marked intra- and inter laboratory differences. The demand for regular internal and external laboratory quality control systems has become so great that the latest edition of the WHO manual includes, for the first time, a lengthy paragraph on quality control techniques.


Semen Sample Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Sperm Morphology Sperm Analysis Antisperm Antibody 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Loredana Gandini
    • 1
  • Andrea Lenzi
    • 1
  • Francesco Lombardo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Experimental MedicineV Medical Clinic, University of Rome “La Sapienza”RomeItaly

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