Instrumentation, Technical Requirements: MRI

  • Yuji Watanabe
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


This section of the chapter provides practical guide for MR examination of the scrotum and comprehensive description of clinical applications. The techniques used for scrotal MR imaging can be implemented with virtually any MR unit. Several technical points are described in obtaining high-resolution scrotal MR imaging: patient preparation, coil selection, respiratory compensation, imaging planes, pulse sequence design, fat suppression, multiple contrast, injection of contrast material, and the scanning order of pulse sequences. Image analysis is also described in the evaluation of testicular volume and perfusion. The scrotal MR imaging can be clinically applied for acute scrotal symptoms, intrascrotal masses, scrotal trauma, nonpalpable testis, infertility, etc. The recommended protocol of pulse sequences should include T1-weighted, FS-T2-weighted, and heavily T2-weighted imaging in the coronal plane. Some changes to the basic protocol should be made depending on the clinical settings. The dynamic subtraction contrast-enhanced MR imaging can be used to provide information about testicular perfusion with the use of dynamic subtraction contrast-enhanced technique.


Spermatic Cord Testicular Volume Testicular Torsion Respiratory Compensation Relative Peak Height 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Baker LL, Hajek PC, Burkhard TK et al (1987a) MR imaging of the scrotum: pathologic conditions. Radiology 163:93–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker LL, Hajek PC, Burkhard TK et al (1987b) MR imaging of the scrotum: normal anatomy. Radiology 163:89–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baud C, Veyrac C, Couture A et al (1998) Spiral twist of the spermatic cord: a reliable sign of testicular torsion. Pediatr Radiol 28:950–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bradley WG Jr (1993) MR appearance of hemorrhage in the brain. Radiology 189:15–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng HC, Khan MA, Bogdanov A Jr et al (1997) Relative blood volume measurements by magnetic resonance imaging facilitate detection of testicular torsion. Invest Radiol 32:763–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choyke PL (2000) Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the scrotum: reality check. Radiology 217:14–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Costabile RA, Choyke PL, Frank JA et al (1993) Dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of testicular perfusion in the rat. J Urol 149:1195–1197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Fritzsche PJ, Hricak H, Kogan BA et al (1987) Undescended testis: value of MR imaging. Radiology 164:169–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Frush DP, Sheldon CA (1998) Diagnostic imaging for pediatric scrotal disorders. Radiographics 18:969–985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hermier M, Nighoghossian N (2004) Contribution of susceptibility-weighted imaging to acute stroke assessment. Stroke 35:1989–1994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hricak H, Hamm B, Kim B (1995) Imaging techniques, anatomy, artifacts and bioeffects: magnetic resonance imaging. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Jhaveri KS, Mazrani W, Chawla TP et al (2010) The role of cross-sectional imaging in male infertility: a pictorial review. Can Assoc Radiol J 61:144–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaipia A, Ryymin P, Makela E et al (2005) Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental testicular torsion. Int J Androl 28:355–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kangasniemi M, Kaipia A, Joensuu R (2001) Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging of rat testes: a method for early detection of ischemia. J Urol 166:2542–2544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kier R, McCarthy S, Rosenfield AT et al (1988) Nonpalpable testes in young boys: evaluation with MR imaging. Radiology 169:429–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim W, Rosen MA, Langer JE et al (2007) US MR imaging correlation in pathologic conditions of the scrotum. Radiographics 27:1239–1253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kodama K, Yotsuyanagi S, Fuse H et al (2000) Magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose segmental testicular infarction. J Urol 163:910–911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Landa HM, Gylys-Morin V, Mattery RF et al (1988) Detection of testicular torsion by magnetic resonance imaging in a rat model. J Urol 140:1178–1180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Muller-Leisse C, Bohndorf K, Stargardt A et al (1994) Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted versus T2-weighted imaging of scrotal disorders: is there an indication for MR imaging? J Magn Reson Imaging 4:389–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Newhouse JH, Murphy RX Jr (1981) Tissue distribution of soluble contrast: effect of dose variation and changes with time. Am J Roentgenol 136:463–467Google Scholar
  21. Oyen RH (2002) Scrotal ultrasound. Eur Radiol 12:19–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Paltiel HJ, Diamond DA, Di Canzio J et al (2002) Testicular volume: comparison of orchidometer and US measurements in dogs. Radiology 222:114–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rholl KS, Lee JK, Ling D et al (1987) MR imaging of the scrotum with a high-resolution surface coil. Radiology 163:99–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Shadbolt CL, Heinze SB, Dietrich RB (2001) Imaging of groin masses: inguinal anatomy and pathologic conditions revisited. Radiographics 21:S261–S271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Shellock F (1992) Biologic effects and safety considertions. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Shellock FG, Crues JV (1988) High-field-strength MR imaging and metallic biomedical implants: an ex vivo evaluation of deflection forces. Am J Roentgenol 151:389–392Google Scholar
  27. Shellock FG, Rothman B, Sarti D (1990) Heating of the scrotum by high-field-strength MR imaging. Am J Roentgenol 154:1229–1232Google Scholar
  28. Simpson WL Jr, Rausch DR (2009) Imaging of male infertility: pictorial review. Am J Roentgenol, 192(Suppl 6):S98-107 (Quiz S108-111)Google Scholar
  29. Terai A, Yoshimura K, Ichioka K et al (2006) Dynamic contrast-enhanced subtraction magnetic resonance imaging in diagnostics of testicular torsion. Urology 67:1278–1282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Trambert MA, Mattrey RF, Levine D et al (1990) Subacute scrotal pain: evaluation of torsion versus epididymitis with MR imaging. Radiology 175:53–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Tripathi RP, Jena AN, Gulati P et al (1992) Undescended testis: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging. Indian Pediatr 29:433–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. van den Brink JS, Watanabe Y, Kuhl CK et al (2003) Implications of SENSE MR in routine clinical practice. Eur J Radiol 46:3–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Watanabe Y, Dohke M, Ohkubo K et al (2000) Scrotal disorders: evaluation of testicular enhancement patterns at dynamic contrast-enhanced subtraction MR imaging. Radiology 217:219–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Watanabe Y, Nagayama M, Okumura A et al (2007) MR imaging of testicular torsion: features of testicular hemorrhagic necrosis and clinical outcomes. J Magn Reson Imaging 26:100–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Young SW, Turner RJ, Castellino RA (1980) A strategy for the contrast enhancement of malignant tumors using dynamic computed tomography and intravascular pharmacokinetics. Radiology 137:137–147PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyKurashiki Central HospitalKurashikiJapan

Personalised recommendations