Advertisement

Skeletal Development and Aging

  • Jim Carmichael
  • Lil-Sofie Ording Müller
  • Karen Rosendahl
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Growing bone is challenging, as bone structure, shape and size change continuously until skeletal maturity. The numerous normal variants of growth which may mimic pathology have been accurately described radiographically, but little is known on the appearances on other modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound. This chapter will take you through fetal and post natal growth of the hand skeleton, and also give an overview of the assessment of bone age.

Keywords

Skeletal Maturity Ossification Centre Carpal Bone Skeletal Maturation Ulna Styloid Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Avenarius DM, Ording Müller LS, Eldevik P, Owens CM, Rosendahl K (2012) Pediatr Radiol 42(7):791–798Google Scholar
  2. Bull RK, Edwards PD, Kemp PM, Fry S, Hughes IA (1999) Bone age assessment: a large scale comparison of the Greulich and Pyle, and Tanner and Whitehouse (TW2) methods. Arch Dis Child 81(2):172–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Canovas F, Jaeger M, Couture A, Sultan C, Bonnel F (1997) Carpal bone maturation during childhood and adolescence: assessment by quantitative computed tomography. Preliminary results. Surg Radiol Anat 19(6):395–398Google Scholar
  4. Dvorak J, George J, Junge A, Hodler J (2007) Age determination by magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in adolescent male football players. Br J Sports Med 41:45–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jaramillo D, Laor T, Hoffer FA, Zaleske DJ, Cleveland RH, Buchbinder BR et al (1991) Epiphyseal marrow in infancy: MR imaging. Radiology 180(3):809–812Google Scholar
  6. Laor T, Jaramillo D (2009) MR imaging insights into skeletal maturation: What is normal? Radiology 250(1):28–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Moore SG, Dawson KL (1990) Red and yellow marrow in the femur: age-related changes in appearance at MR imaging. Radiology 175(1):219–223Google Scholar
  8. Ording Müller LS, Avenarius D, Damasio B, Eldevik OP, Malattia C, Lambot-Juhan K, Tanturri L, Owens CM, Rosendahl K (2011) The paediatric wrist revisited: redefining MR findings in healthy children. Ann Rheum Dis 70(4):605-610. Epub 2010 Dec 20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Pyle SI, Waterhouse AM, Greulich WW (1971) Attributes of the radiographic standard of reference for the national health examination survey. Am J Phys Anthropol 35(3):331–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Schmeling A, Reisinger W, Loreck D, Vendura K, Markus W, Geserick G (2000) Effects of ethnicity on skeletal maturation: consequences for forensic age estimations. Int J Legal Med 113(5):253–258Google Scholar
  11. Schmeling A, Baumann U, Schmidt S, Wernecke KD, Reisinger W (2006) Reference data for the Thiemann–Nitz method of assessing skeletal age for the purpose of forensic age estimation. Int J Legal Med 120:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Schmidt S, Koch B, Schulz R, Reisinger W, Schmeling A (2007) Comparative analysis of the applicability of the skeletal age determination methods of Greulich–Pyle and Thiemann–Nitz for forensic age estimation in living subjects. Int J Legal Med 121(4):293–296Google Scholar
  13. Schmidt S, Nitz I, Schulz R, Schmeling A (2008) Applicability of the skeletal age determination method of Tanner and Whitehouse for forensic age diagnostics. Int J Legal Med 122(4):309–314Google Scholar
  14. Schmitt R, Lanz U (2008) Diagnostic imaging of the hand. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  15. Tanner J, Healy MJR, Golstein H, Cameron N (2001) Assessment of skeletal maturity and prediction of adult height (TW3) method, 3rd edn. Saunders, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Thodberg HH (2009) Clinical review: an automated method for determination of bone age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94(7):2239–2244Google Scholar
  17. Zhang A, Sayre JW, Vachon L, Liu BJ, Huang HK (2009) Racial differences in growth patterns of children assessed on the basis of bone age. Radiology 250(1):228–235Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jim Carmichael
    • 3
  • Lil-Sofie Ording Müller
    • 2
  • Karen Rosendahl
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Paediatric RadiologyHaukeland University Hospital and University of BergenBergenNorway
  2. 2.Section for Paediatric RadiologyOslo University Hospital, HF, UllevålOsloNorway
  3. 3.Department of Paediatric RadiologyGuys and Thomas’/Evelina Childrens HospitalLondonUK

Personalised recommendations