Evaluation of Carotid Atherosclerosis and Inflammation by Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound

  • Joseph Shalhoub
  • David R. J. Owen
  • Edward L. S. Leen
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CE-US) was initially used to facilitate unenhanced duplex for as part of the structural vascular examination. CE-US is emerging as having utility for assessing the adventitial and plaque vasa vasorum, and reflecting vascular and plaque inflammation. Such functional imaging may help with risk stratification of carotid atherosclerosis and in monitoring the response to plaque stabilising and risk modifying cardiovascular therapeutics. Research is ongoing in the refinement and standardisation of protocols in carotid CE-US.


Portal Vein Thrombosis Carotid Stenosis Carotid Plaque Carotid Atherosclerosis Plaque Vulnerability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Shalhoub
    • 1
  • David R. J. Owen
    • 2
  • Edward L. S. Leen
    • 3
  1. 1.Academic Section of Vascular SurgeryImperial College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of MedicineImperial College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of MedicineImperial College LondonLondonUK

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