Diagnostic Imaging Techniques

Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Imaging of the paediatric gynaecological tract encompasses patients with vastly different physiology ranging from the neonate under maternal hormonal influence to the post-pubertal young adolescent. Ultrasound is the mainstay of imaging of the genitourinary tract. In specific clinical circumstances, cross-sectional imaging may be necessary. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with its intrinsic high soft tissue contrast and multiplanar capability is preferred but will usually necessitate some of form of sedation in the younger child. Computed tomography (CT) is preferably avoided because of ionising radiation exposure. Contrast examinations are specialised imaging procedures for specific conditions. This chapter considers the various imaging modalities available for the investigation of gynaecological disorders in children.

Abbreviations

TVS

Transvaginal ultrasound

TAS

Transabdominal ultrasound

TSE

Turbo spin-echo

FISP

Fast imaging with steady-state precession

3D

Three dimensional

US

Ultrasound

MDCT

Multi-detector computed tomography

CT

Computed tomography

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

HSG

Hysterosalpingogram

NG

Nasogastric

AP

Anteroposterior

MRA

Magnetic resonance angiography

LOCM

Low-osmolar contrast medium

TFE

Turbo field-echo

TSE

Turbo spin-echo

BFFE

Balanced fast field echo

2D

Two dimensional

THRIVE

T1 high-resolution isotropic volume excitation

SPAIR

Spectral adiabatic inversion recovery

FOV

Field of view

NSA

Number of signal averages

TR

Repetition time

HASTE

Half fourier acquisition with turbo spin-echo

SSH

Single shot

GRE

Gradient echo

SNR

Signal-to-noise ratio

MHz

Megahertz

mAs

Milliampere second

kVp

Kilovolt peak

EUA

Examination under anaesthesia

MRU

Magnetic resonance urography

TPS

Transperineal sonography

FLASH

Fast low angle single shot

SENSE

Sensitivity encoding

iPAT

Integrated parallel acquisition techniques

ALARA

As low as reasonably achievable

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Paediatric RadiologyAlder Hey Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation TrustLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyLiverpool Women’s Hospital NHS Foundation TrustLiverpoolUK
  3. 3.Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyLiverpool Women’s Hospital NHS Foundation TrustLiverpoolUK

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