Common Injuries in Gymnasts

  • Maaike P. Terra
  • Mario Maas
  • Charlotte M. Nusman
  • Ana Navas-Canete
  • Milko C. de Jonge
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Both acute injuries as well as chronic overuse injuries should be considered when evaluating examinations of elite gymnastic athletes. Injuries of the growing skeleton are typically seen in gymnasts. Imaging in gymnasts comprises mainly conventional radiographs, MR imaging and CT. There is an important additional role for Multi detector Helical CT when MR imaging is suggestive of disease: CT will better delineate extend of lesion especially in the osseous structures. Correlation between imaging findings and clinical situation is mandatory. Therefore close interaction between radiologist and treating physician is essential.


Rotator Cuff Bone Marrow Edema Scaphoid Fracture Osteochondral Lesion Lateral Epicondylitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Backx FJ, Erich WB, Kemper AB, Verbeek AL (1989) Sports injuries in school-aged children. An epidemiologic study. Am J Sports Med 17(2):234–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banks KP, Ly JQ, Beall DP, Grayson DE, Bancroft LW, Tall MA (2005) Overuse injuries of the upper extremity in the competitive athlete: magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with repetitive trauma. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 34(4):127–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bencardino JT, Mellado JM (2005) Hamstring injuries of the hip. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 13(4):677–690, viGoogle Scholar
  4. Berger FH, de Jonge MC, Maas M (2007) Stress fractures in the lower extremity. The importance of increasing awareness amongst radiologists. Eur J Radiol 62(1):16–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bono CM (2004) Low-back pain in athletes. J Bone Joint Surg Am 86-A(2):382–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradley JP, Petrie RS (2001) Osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum. Diagnosis and treatment. Clin Sports Med 20(3):565–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caine DJ, Nassar L (2005) Gymnastics injuries. Med Sport Sci 48:18–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DiFiori JP, Caine DJ, Malina RM (2006) Wrist pain, distal radial physeal injury, and ulnar variance in the young gymnast. Am J Sports Med 34(5):840–849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garrett WE Jr (1996) Muscle strain injuries. Am J Sports Med 24(6):S2–S8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Grainger AJ (2008) Internal impingement syndromes of the shoulder. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 12(2):127–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Karantanas A, Dailiana Z, Malizos K (2007) The role of MR imaging in scaphoid disorders. Eur Radiol 17(11):2860–2871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kerssemakers SP, Fotiadou AN, de Jonge MC, Karantanas AH, Maas M (2009) Sport injuries in the paediatric and adolescent patient: a growing problem. Pediatr Radiol 39(5):471–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Koh ES, Lee JC, Healy JC (2007) MRI of overuse injury in elite athletes. Clin Radiol 62(11):1036–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kruse D, Lemmen B (2009) Spine injuries in the sport of gymnastics. Curr Sports Med Rep 8(1):20–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lau LL, Mahadev A, Hui JH (2008) Common lower limb sport-related overuse injuries in young athletes. Ann Acad Med Singapore 37(4):315–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ring D, Lozano-Calderon S (2008) Imaging for suspected scaphoid fracture. J Hand Surg [Am] 33(6):954–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rosenberg ZS, Beltran J, Cheung YY (1994) Pseudodefect of the capitellum: potential MR imaging pitfall. Radiology 191(3):821–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Roy S, Caine D, Singer KM (1985) Stress changes of the distal radial epiphysis in young gymnasts. A report of twenty-one cases and a review of the literature. Am J Sports Med 13(5):301–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sands WA (2000) Injury prevention in women’s gymnastics. Sports Med 30(5):359–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shahabpour M, Kichouh M, Laridon E, Gielen JL, De Mey J (2008) The effectiveness of diagnostic imaging methods for the assessment of soft tissue and articular disorders of the shoulder and elbow. Eur J Radiol 65(2):194–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shih C, Chang CY, Penn IW, Tiu CM, Chang T, Wu JJ (1995) Chronically stressed wrists in adolescent gymnasts: MR imaging appearance. Radiology 195(3):855–859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Singh S, Smith GA, Fields SK, McKenzie LB (2008) Gymnastics-related injuries to children treated in emergency departments in the United States, 1990-2005. Pediatrics 121(4):e954–e960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Soler T, Calderon C (2000) The prevalence of spondylolysis in the Spanish elite athlete. Am J Sports Med 28(1):57–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Stabler A, Paulus R, Steinborn M, Bosch R, Matzko M, Reiser M (2000) Spondylolysis in the developmental stage: diagnostic contribution of MRI. Rofo 172(1):33–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Sward L, Hellstrom M, Jacobsson B, Nyman R, Peterson L (1991) Disc degeneration and associated abnormalities of the spine in elite gymnasts. A magnetic resonance imaging study. Spine 16(4):437–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Verhagen RA, Maas M, Dijkgraaf MG, Tol JL, Krips R, van Dijk CN (2005) Prospective study on diagnostic strategies in osteochondral lesions of the talus. Is MRI superior to helical multi-detector CT? J Bone Joint Surg Br 87(1):41–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maaike P. Terra
    • 1
  • Mario Maas
    • 1
  • Charlotte M. Nusman
    • 1
  • Ana Navas-Canete
    • 1
  • Milko C. de Jonge
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations