Lung Ventilation

  • Sven F. Thieme
  • Sandra Högl
  • Thorsten R. C. Johnson
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


There have been attempts to use the radiodense noble gas xenon gas (Xe, atomic number Z = 54) as a contrast agent for CT lung ventilation imaging since the end of the 1970s. However, as this approach required repeated chest CT scans, due to an increased patient dose and potential misregistration, this method was not transferred to clinical practice. With the advance of Dual Energy CT (DECT), it has become possible to quantify and map inhaled xenon within the respiratory system in a single Dual Energy (DE) scan. As inhaled xenon has anesthetic properties in higher concentrations, xenon-enhanced DECT has to be performed with caution in patients with respiratory diseases. Although expert knowledge is rather small to date, first results confirm the potential of an increased diagnostic value of xenon-enhanced DECT of the lungs that can bring together high-resolution (HR) morphological and additional functional information. This chapter elucidates the potentials and drawbacks of the method.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Xenon Concentration Iodine Mapping 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


CT pulmonary angiography


Dual energy


Dual energy CT






Multidetector computed tomography


Magnetic resonance imaging


N-methyl-d-aspartic acid


Signal-to-noise ratio




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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sven F. Thieme
    • 1
  • Sandra Högl
    • 2
  • Thorsten R. C. Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical RadiologyUniversity of Munich, Grosshadern HospitalMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department for AnaesthesiologyUniversity of Munich, Grosshadern HospitalMunichGermany

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