Fetal MRI pp 65-80 | Cite as

Methods of Fetal MRI

  • Peter C. Brugger
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differs in many respects from a postnatal MRI study. The operator has no influence on the position of the fetus, only by proper positioning and repositioning of the surface coil, and/or the pregnant woman, may optimal imaging conditions be achieved. Without using sedation, fetal movements and positional changes make fetal MRI a sort of interactive imaging, with the goal being to acquire a series of continuous, correctly oriented images as quickly as possible. As structures to be imaged are very small, high-quality images are essential for depicting detailed anatomy and pathology. Therefore, a balance between resolution, field of view, slice thickness, and acquisition time must be found. In addition to T2-weighted sequences, several ultrafast sequences are now available that can provide additional information about specific organs or pathologies.


Abdominal Circumference Fetal Movement Gestational Week Fetal Head Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Baldoli C, Righini A, Parazzini C, Scotti G, Triulzi F (2002) Demonstration of acute ischemic lesions in the fetal brain by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Neurol 52:243–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cannie M, Jani JC, De Keyzer F, Devlieger R, Van Schoubroeck D, Witters I, Marchal G, Dymarkowski S, Deprest JA (2006) Fetal body volume: use of MR imaging to quantify relative lung volume in fetuses suspected of having pulmonary hypoplasia. Radiology 241:847–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chaumoitre K, Colavolpe N, Shojai R, Sarran A, D’ Ercole C, Panuel M (2007) Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) determination in normal and pathological fetal kidneys. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 29:22–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clifton MS, Joe BN, Zektzer AS, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Coakley FV, Nobuhara KK, Swanson MG (2006) Feasibility of magnetic resonance spectroscopy for evaluating fetal lung maturity. J Pediatr Surg 41:768–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ehrström C (1984) Circadian rhythm of fetal movements. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 63:539–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fenton BW, Lin CS, Ascher S, Macedonia C (2000) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy to detect lecithin in amniotic fluid and fetal lung. Obstet Gynecol 95:457–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Girard N, Fogliarini C, Viola A, Confort-Gouny S, Fur YL, Viout P, Chapon F, Levrier O, Cozzone P (2006a) MRS of normal and impaired fetal brain development. Eur J Radiol 57:217–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Girard N, Gouny SC, Viola A, Le Fur Y, Viout P, Chaumoitre K, D’Ercole C, Gire C, Figarella-Branger D, Cozzone PJ (2006b) Assessment of normal fetal brain maturation in utero by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med 56:768–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guimiot F, Garel C, Fallet-Bianco C, Menez F, Khung-Savatovsky S, Oury JF, Sebag G, Delezoide AL (2008) Contribution of diffusion-weighted imaging in the evaluation of diffuse white matter ischemic lesions in fetuses: correlations with fetopathologic findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29:110–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Heerschap A, Kok RD, van den Berg PP (2003) Antenatal proton MR spectroscopy of the human brain in vivo. Childs Nerv Syst 19:418–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jani J, Breysem L, Maes F, Boulvain M, Roubliova X, Lewi L, Vaast P, Biard JM, Cannie M, Deprest J (2005) Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for measuring fetal sheep lungs and other organs. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 25:270–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jiang S (2008) Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in moving subjects. Application to fetal, neonatal and adult brain studies. PhD Thesis, Imperial College LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Kasprian G, Balassy C, Brugger PC, Prayer D (2006) MRI of normal and pathological fetal lung development. Eur J Radiol 57:261–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kasprian G, Brugger PC, Weber M, Krssak M, Krampl E, Herold C, Prayer D (2008) In utero tractography of fetal white matter development. Neuroimage 43:213–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kim DH, Vahidi K, Caughey AB, Coakley FV, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J, Mow B, Joe BN (2008) In vivo (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of amniotic fluid and fetal lung at 1.5 T: technical challenges. J Magn Reson Imaging 28:1033–1038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim TH, Joh JH, Kim MY, Kim YM, Han KS (2002) Fetal pericallosal lipoma: US and MR findings. Korean J Radiol 3:140–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kok RD, van den Berg PP, van den Bergh AJ, Nijland R, Heerschap A (2002) Maturation of the human fetal brain as observed by 1H MR spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med 48:611–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kulemann V, Brugger PC, Pugash D, Weber M, Prayer D (2009) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the fetal brain - does it work without sedation? ASNR 47th Annual Meeting 2009, Vancouver, Abstract bookGoogle Scholar
  19. Rousseau F, Glenn OA, Iordanova B, Rodriguez-Carranza C, Vigneron DB, Barkovich JA, Studholme C (2006) Registration-based approach for reconstruction of high-resolution in utero fetal MR brain images. Acad Radiol 13:1072–1081PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Savelli S, Di Maurizio M, Perrone A, Tesei J, Francioso A, Angeletti M, La Barbera L, Ballesio L, de Felice C, Porfiri LM, Manganaro L (2007) MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) assessment in the evaluation of normal and abnormal fetal kidneys: preliminary experience. Prenat Diagn 27:1104–1111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Terakoshi H, Uchiyama K, Era K, Oishi S, Osone F, Futami T (2000) MR fetography. A new MR technique for imaging of the fetus. Jpn J of Magn Reson Med 20:138–149Google Scholar
  22. Verswijvel G, Grieten M, Gyselaers W, Van Holsbeke C, Vandevenne J, Horvath M, Gelin G, Palmers Y (2002) MRI in the assessment of pregnancy-related intrauterine bleeding: a valuable adjunct to ultrasound? Jbr-Btr 85: 189–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ward VL, Nishino M, Hatabu H, Estroff JA, Barnewolt CE, Feldman HA, Levine D (2006) Fetal lung volume measurements: determination with MR imaging - effect of various factors. Radiology 240:187–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Witzani L, Brugger PC, Hörmann M, Kasprian G, Csapone-Balassy C, Prayer D (2006) Normal renal development investigated with fetal MRI. Eur J Radiol 57:294–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Integrative Morphology Group, Center of Anatomy and Cell BiologyMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations