Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders

  • Giuseppe GuglielmiEmail author
  • Silvana Muscarella
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Hand and wrist are well recognized as a mirror of disease for various metabolic and endocrine pathologic conditions. Among them, osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disorder. It is defined as “a skeletal disease, characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture” . As a disease of the elderly, its prevalence will increase as the population ages leading to a need to intensify and optimize the diagnostic techniques for its assessment. BMD is a measurement of bone mass and a reflection of the amount of calcium in bone. Currently, the gold standard for measuring BMD is Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA).


Bone Mineral Density Distal Radius Renal Osteodystrophy Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Metacarpal Bone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of FoggiaFoggiaItaly
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyHospital “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza”San Giovanni RotondoItaly

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