Advertisement

Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders

  • Giuseppe Guglielmi
  • Silvana Muscarella
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Hand and wrist are well recognized as a mirror of disease for various metabolic and endocrine pathologic conditions. Among them, osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disorder. It is defined as “a skeletal disease, characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture” . As a disease of the elderly, its prevalence will increase as the population ages leading to a need to intensify and optimize the diagnostic techniques for its assessment. BMD is a measurement of bone mass and a reflection of the amount of calcium in bone. Currently, the gold standard for measuring BMD is Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA).

Keywords

Bone Mineral Density Distal Radius Renal Osteodystrophy Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Metacarpal Bone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adams JE (2009) Quantitative computed tomography. Eur J Radiol 71:415–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agostinelli D, de Terlizzi F (2007) QUS in monitoring raloxifene and estrogen-progestogens: a 4-year longitudinal study. Ultrasound Med Biol 33:1184–1190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous (2003) Prevention and management of osteoporosis. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 921:1–164Google Scholar
  4. Banerjee S, Choudhury S, Han ET, Brau AC, Morze CV, Vigneron DB, Majumdar S (2006) Autocalibrating parallel imaging of in vivo trabecular bone microarchitecture at 3 Tesla. Magn Reson Med 56:1075–1084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borg SA, Fitzer PM, Young LW (1975) Roentgenologic aspects of adult cretinism. Two case reports and review of the literature. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 123:820–828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boutroy S, Bouxsein ML, Munoz F, Delmas PD (2005) In vivo assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:6508–6515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boutroy S, Van Rietbergen B, Sornay-Rendu E, Munoz F, Bouxsein ML, Delmas PD (2008) Finite element analysis based on in vivo HR-pQCT images of the distal radius is associated with wrist fracture in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 23:392–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Caligiuri P, Giger ML, Favus M (1994) Multifractal radiographic analysis of osteoporosis. Med Phys 21:503–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Camozzi V, De Terlizzi F, Zangari M, Luisetto G (2007) Quantitative bone ultrasound at phalanges and calcaneus in osteoporotic postmenopausal women: influence of age and measurement site. Ultrasound Med Biol 33:1039–1045PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cauley JA, Lui LY, Ensrud KE, Zmuda JM, Stone KL, Hochberg MC, Cummings SR (2005) Bone mineral density and the risk of incident nonspinal fractures in black and white women. JAMA 293:2102–2108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Center JR, Nguyen TV, Schneider D, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA (1999) Mortality after all major types of osteoporotic fracture in men and women: an observational study. Lancet 353:878–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chesnut CH 3rd, Majumdar S, Newitt DC, Shields A, Van Pelt J, Laschansky E, Azria M, Kriegman A, Olson M, Eriksen EF, Mindeholm L (2005) Effects of salmon calcitonin on trabecular microarchitecture as determined by magnetic resonance imaging: results from the QUEST study. J Bone Miner Res 20:1548–1561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cockerill W, Lunt M, Silman AJ, Cooper C, Lips P, Bhalla AK, Cannata JB, Eastell R, Felsenberg D, Gennari C, Johnell O, Kanis JA, Kiss C, Masaryk P, Naves M, Poor G, Raspe H, Reid DM, Reeve J, Stepan J, Todd C, Woolf AD, O’Neill TW (2004) Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture. Osteoporos Int 15:113–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cortet B, Boutry N, Dubois P, Bourel P, Cotten A, Marchandise X (2000) In vivo comparison between computed tomography and magnetic resonance image analysis of the distal radius in the assessment of osteoporosis. J Clin Densitom 3:15–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cosman F (2005) The prevention and treatment of osteoporosis: a review. MedGenMed 7:73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cuddihy MT, Gabriel SE, Crowson CS, O’Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd (1999) Forearm fractures as predictors of subsequent osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos Int 9:469–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Stone K, Fox KM, Ensrud KE, Cauley J, Black D, Vogt TM (1995) Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl J Med 332:767–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cummings SR, Bates D, Black DM (2002) Clinical use of bone densitometry: scientific review. JAMA 288:1889–1897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Damilakis J, Maris TG, Karantanas AH (2006) An update on the assessment of osteoporosis using radiologic techniques. Eur Radiol 17:1591–1602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deng HW, Li JL, Li J, Davies KM, Recker RR (1998) Heterogeneity of bone mineral density across skeletal sites and its clinical implications. J Clin Densitom 1:339–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Endres HG, Dasch B, Maier C, Lungenhausen M, Smektala R, Trampisch HJ, Pientka L (2007) Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with distal radius fracture in Germany. Curr Med Res Opin 23:2171–2181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Engelke K, Adams JE, Armbrecht G, Augat P, Bogado CE, Bouxsein ML, Felsenberg D, Ito M, Prevrhal S, Hans DB, Lewiecki EM (2008) Clinical use of quantitative computed tomography and peripheral quantitative computed tomography in the management of osteoporosis in adults: the 2007 ISCD Official Positions. J Clin Densitom 11:123–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Genant HK, Engelke K, Fuerst T, Glüer CC, Grampp S, Harris ST, Jergas M, Lang T, Lu Y, Majumdar S, Mathur A, Takada M (1996) Noninvasive assessment of bone mineral and structure: state of the art. J Bone Miner Res 11:707–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Genant HK, Engelke K, Prevrhal S (2008) Advanced CT bone imaging in osteoporosis. Rheumatology 47:iv9–iv16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gluer CC, The International Quantitative Ultrasound Consensus Group (1997) Quantitative ultrasound techniques for the assessment of osteoporosis: expert agreement on current status. J Bone Miner Res 12:1280–1288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gnudi S, Ripamonti C, Malavolta N (2000) Quantitative ultrasound and bone densitometry to evaluate the risk of nonspine fractures: a prospective study. Osteoporos Int 11:518–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gomberg BR, Wehrli FW, Vasilić B, Weening RH, Saha PK, Song HK, Wright AC (2004) Reproducibility and error sources of micro-MRI-based trabecular bone structural parameters of the distal radius and tibia. Bone 35:266–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gonnelli S, Martini G, Caffarelli C, Salvadori S, Cadirni A, Montagnani A, Nuti R (2006) Teriparatide’s effects on quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone density in women with established osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 17:1524–1531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grampp S, Jergas M, Glüer CC, Lang P, Brastow P, Genant HK (1993) Radiologic diagnosis of osteoporosis. Current methods and perspectives. Radiol Clin North Am 31:1133–1145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Grampp S, Genant HK, Mathur A, Lang P, Jergas M, Takada M, Glüer CC, Lu Y, Chavez M (1997) Comparisons of noninvasive bone mineral measurements in assessing age-related loss, fracture discrimination, and diagnostic classification. J Bone Miner Res 12:697–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guglielmi G, de Terlizzi F (2009) Quantitative ultrasound in the assessment of osteoporosis. Eur J Radiol 71:425–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Guglielmi G, Lang TF (2002) Quantitative computed tomography. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 6:219–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Guglielmi G, Genant HK, Pacifici R, Giannatempo GM, Cammisa M (1994) The imaging diagnosis of osteoporosis. The state of the art and outlook. Radiol Med 88:535–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Guglielmi G, Schneider P, Lang TF, Giannatempo GM, Cammisa M, Genant HK (1997a) Quantitative computed tomography at the axial and peripheral skeleton. Eur Radiol 7:32–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Guglielmi G, Cammisa M, De Serio A, Giannatempo GM, Bagni B, Orlandi G, Russo CR (1997b) Long-term in vitro precision of single slice peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT): multicenter comparison. Technol Health Care 5:375–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Guglielmi G, Cammisa M, De Serio A, Scillitani A, Chiodini I, Carnevale V, Fusilli S (1999) Phalangeal US velocity discriminates between normal and vertebrally fractured subjects. Eur Radiol 9:1632–1637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Guglielmi G, De Serio A, Fusilli S, Scillitani A, Chiodini I, Torlontano M, Cammisa M (2000) Age-related changes assessed by peripheral QCT in healthy Italian women. Eur Radiol 10:609–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Guglielmi G, Cammisa M, De Serio A (2001) Bone densitometry and osteoporosis at the hand and wrist. In: Gulglielmi G, Van Kuijk C, Genant HK (eds) Fundamentals of hand and wrist imaging. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 233–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Guglielmi G, Perta A, Cammisa M (2003a) Plain radiographs in the study of osteoporotic syndrome. Radiol Med 105:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Guglielmi G, Perta A, Palladino D, Crisetti N, Mischitelli F, Cammisa M (2003b) Bone densitometry in the diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis. Radiol Med 106:29–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Guglielmi G, Crisetti N, Mischitelli F, Cammisa M (2003c) Quantitative ultrasound. Radiol Med 105:27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Guglielmi G, Toffanin R, Cova M, Cammisa M (2003d) Quantitative magnetic resonance of trabecular bone. Radiol Med 105:34–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Guglielmi G, Muscarella S, Leone A, Peh WC (2008) Imaging of metabolic bone diseases. Radiol Clin North Am 46:735–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Guglielmi G, Adams J, Link TM (2009) Quantitative ultrasound in the assessment of skeletal status. Eur Radiol 19:1837–1848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Guyatt GH, Cranney A, Griffith L, Walter S, Krolicki N, Favus M, Rosen C (2002) Summary of meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis and the relationship between bone density and fractures. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 31:659–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hartl F, Tyndall A, Kraenzlin M, Bachmeier C, Gückel C, Senn U, Hans D, Theiler R (2002) Discriminatory ability of quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone mineral density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures: results of the Basel Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 17:321–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ingle BM, Machado AB, Pereda CA, Eastell R (2005) Monitoring alendronate and estradiol therapy with quantitative ultrasound and bone mineral density. J Clin Densitom 8:278–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ito M, Tsurusaki K, Hayashi K (1997) Peripheral QCT for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 7:S120–S127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kanis JA, on behalf of the World Health Organization Scientific Group (2007) Assessment of osteoporosis at the primary health-care level. Technical Report. World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, UK, 2008Google Scholar
  50. Khosla S, Riggs BL, Atkinson EJ, Oberg AL, McDaniel LJ, Holets M, Peterson JM, Melton LJ 3rd (2006a) Effects of sex and age on bone microstructure at the ultradistal radius: a population-based noninvasive in vivo assessment. J Bone Miner Res 21:124–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Khosla S, Melton LJ 3rd, Achenbach SJ, Oberg AL, Riggs BL (2006b) Hormonal and biochemical determinants of trabecular microstructure at the ultradistal radius in women and men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:885–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kleinberg DL, Young IS, Kupperman HS (1966) The sesamoid index. An aid in the diagnosis of acromegaly. Ann Intern Med 64:1075–1078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Krieg MA, Cornuz J, Ruffieux C, Sandini L, Büche D, Dambacher MA, Hartl F, Häuselmann HJ, Kraenzlin M, Lippuner K, Neff M, Pancaldi P, Rizzoli R, Tanzi F, Theiler R, Tyndall A, Wimpfheimer K, Burckhardt P (2003) Comparison of three bone ultrasounds for the discrimination of subjects with and without osteoporotic fractures among 7562 elderly women. J Bone Miner Res 18:1261–1266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lane JM, Serota AC, Raphael B (2006) Osteoporosis: differences and similarities in male and female patients. Orthop Clin North Am 37:601–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Link TM, Rummeny EJ, Lenzen H, Reuter I, Roos N, Peters PE (1994) Artificial bone erosions: detection with magnification radiography versus conventional high resolution radiography. Radiology 192:861–864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Link TM, Majumdar S, Augat P, Lin JC, Newitt D, Lu Y, Lane NE, Genant HK (1998) In vivo high resolution MRI of the calcaneus: differences in trabecular structure in osteoporosis patients. J Bone Miner Res 13:1175–1182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Link TM, Majumdar S, Grampp S, Guglielmi G, van Kuijk C, Imhof H, Glueer C, Adams JE (1999) Imaging of trabecular bone structure in osteoporosis. Eur Radiol 9:1781–1788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Majumdar S, Genant HK, Grampp S, Newitt DC, Truong VH, Lin JC, Mathur A (1997) Correlation of trabecular bone structure with age, bone mineral density, and osteoporotic status: in vivo studies in the distal radius using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging. J Bone Miner Res 12:111–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Majumdar S, Link TM, Augat P, Lin JC, Newitt D, Lane NE, Genant HK (1999) Trabecular bone architecture in the distal radius using magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with fractures of the proximal femur. Magnetic Resonance Science Center and Osteoporosis and Arthritis Research Group. Osteoporos Int 10:231–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Meema HE, Meema S (1972) Comparison of microradioscopic and morphometric findings in the hand bones with densitometric findings in the proximal radius in thyrotoxicosis and in renal osteodystrophy. Invest Radiol 7:88–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mosekilde L, Eriksen EF, Charles P (1990) Effects of thyroid hormones on bone and mineral metabolism. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 19:35–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. National Osteoporosis Society (2002) The use of quantitative ultrasound in the management of osteoporosis. Position statement of 31 January 2002Google Scholar
  63. Newitt DC, van Rietbergen B, Majumdar S (2002) Processing and analysis of in vivo high-resolution MR images of trabecular bone for longitudinal studies: reproducibility of structural measures and micro-finite element analysis derived mechanical properties. Osteoporos Int 13:278–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pacheco EM, Harrison EJ, Ward KA, Lunt M, Adams JE (2002) Detection of osteoporosis by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the calcaneus: is the WHO criterion applicable? Calcif Tissue Int 70:475–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Park EA (1932) The Blackader Lecture on some aspects of rickets. Can Med Assoc J 26:3–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Parker BR (1981) Hypothyroidism with epiphysial dysgenesis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 136:1030Google Scholar
  67. Picard D, Brown JP, Rosenthall L, Couturier M, Lévesque J, Dumont M, Ste-Marie LG, Tenenhouse A, Dodin S (2004) Ability of peripheral DXA measurement to diagnose osteoporosis as assessed by central DXA measurement. J Clin Densitom 7:111–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Resnick D (1995a) Acromegaly and gigantism. In: Resnick D (ed) Diagnosis of bone and joint disorders. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1971–1992Google Scholar
  69. Resnick D (1995b) Hypopituitarism. In: Resnick D (ed) Diagnosis of bone and joint disorders. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1992–1993Google Scholar
  70. Resnick D (1995c) Hyperthyroidism. In: Resnick D (ed) Diagnosis of bone and joint disorders. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1995–1999Google Scholar
  71. Resnick D (1995d) Hyperparathyroidism. In: Resnick D (ed) Diagnosis of bone and joint disorder. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 2012–2036Google Scholar
  72. Resnick D (1995e) Rickets and osteomalacia. In: Resnick D (ed) Diagnosis of bone and joint disorder. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1885–1922Google Scholar
  73. Resnick D (1995f) Hypoparathyroidism. In: Resnick D (ed) Diagnosis of bone and joint disorder. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 2061–2064Google Scholar
  74. Ross PD (1998) Epidemiology of osteoporosis. In: Genant HK G, Jergas M (eds) Bone densitometry and osteoporosis. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rüegsegger P, Elsasser U, Anliker M, Gnehm H, Kind H, Prader A (1976) Quantification of bone mineralization using computed tomography. Radiology 121:93–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Sartoris D (1971) Acromegaly. In: Sartoris D (ed) Musculoskeletal imaging. Mosby-Year Book, St. Louis, pp 302–303Google Scholar
  77. Sartoris D (1996) Hypothyroidism. In: Sartoris D (ed) Muskuloskeletal imaging. Mosby-Year Book, St. Louis, pp 301–302Google Scholar
  78. Schattauer GmbH (2006) Evidence-Based DVO Guidelines Osteoporosis in Germany; prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy in postmenopausal women and men over 60 years. Verlag fur medizin und naturwissenschaften, 70174 StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  79. Schneider P, Börner W (1991) Peripheral quantitative computed tomography for bone mineral measurement using a new special QCT-scanner. Methodology, normal values, comparison with manifest osteoporosis. Rofo 154:292–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schneider P, Reiners C (1998) Peripheral quantitative computed tomography. In: Genant HK, Guglielmi G, Jergas M (eds) Bone densitometry and osteoporosis. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 349–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schott AM, Weill-Engerer S, Hans D, Duboeuf F, Delmas PD, Meunier PJ (1995) Ultrasound discriminates patients with hip fracture equally well as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and independently of bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res 10:243–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Seeman E, Delmas PD (2006) Bone quality–the material and structural basis of bone strength and fragility. N Engl J Med 354:2250–2261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Seeman E, Melton LJ 3rd, O’Fallon WM, Riggs BL (1983) Risk factors for spinal osteoporosis in men. Am J Med 75:977–983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sell CA, Masi JN, Burghardt A, Newitt D, Link TM, Majumdar S (2005) Quantification of trabecular bone structure using magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla–calibration studies using microcomputed tomography as a standard of reference. Calcif Tissue Int 76:355–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sornay-Rendu E, Boutry S, Munoz F, Bouxsein ML (2009) Cortical and trabecular architecture are altered in postmenopausal women with fracture. Osteoporos Int 20:1291–1297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Spadaro JA, Werner FW, Brenner RA, Fortino MD, Fay LA, Edwards WT (1994) Cortical and trabecular bone contribute strength to the osteopenic distal radius. J Orthop Res 12:211–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stampa B, Kühn B, Liess C, Heller M, Glüer CC (2002) Characterization of the integrity of three-dimensional trabecular bone microstructure by connectivity and shape analysis using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Top Magn Reson Imaging 13:357–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Steinbach Hl, Noetzli M (1964) Roentgen appearance of the skeleton in osteomalacia and rickets. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 91:955–972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Steinbach H, Gold R, Preger L (1975) Congenital hypothyroidism (cretinoid epiphyseal dysplasia). In: Steinbach H, Gold R, Preger L (eds) Roentgen appearance of the hand in diffuse disease. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, pp 239–241Google Scholar
  90. Sundaram M, Joyce PF, Shields JB, Riaz MA, Sagar S (1979) Terminal phalangeal tufts: earliest site of renal osteodystrophy findings in hemodialysis patients. Am J Roentgenol 133:25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Techawiboonwong A, Song HK, Magland JF, Saha PK, Wehrli FW (2005) Implications of pulse sequence in structural imaging of trabecular bone. J Magn Reson Imaging 22:647–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Theodorou DJ, Theodorou SJ, Resnick D (2001) The hand in endocrine disorders. In: Guglielmi G, Van Kuijk C, Genant HK (eds) Fundamentals of hand and wrist imaging. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, p 203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Virtama P (1960) Uneven distribution of bone minerals and covering effect of non-mineralized tissue as reasons for impaired detectability of bone density from roentgenograms. Ann Med Intern Fenn 49:57–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Vokes TJ, Giger ML, Chinander MR, Karrison TG, Favus MJ, Dixon LB (2006) Radiographic texture analysis of densitometer-generated calcaneus images differentiates postmenopausal women with and without fractures. Osteoporos Int 17:1472–1482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wehrli FW (2007) Structural and functional assessment of trabecular and cortical bone by micro magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 25:390–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wehrli FW, Hwang SN, Ma J, Song HK, Ford JC, Haddad JG (1998) Cancellous bone volume and structure in the forearm: noninvasive assessment with MR microimaging and image processing. Radiology 206:347–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Wehrli F, Gomberg B, Saha P, Song H, Hwang S, Snyder P (2001) Digital topological analysis of in vivo magnetic resonance microimages of trabecular bone reveals structural implications of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 16:1520–1531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wehrli FW, Saha PK, Gomberg BR, Song HK, Snyder PJ, Benito M, Wright A, Weening R (2002) Role of magnetic resonance for assessing structure and function of trabecular bone. Top Magn Reson Imaging 13:335–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wüster C, Albanese C, De Aloysio D, Duboeuf F, Gambacciani M, Gonnelli S, Glüer CC, Hans D, Joly J, Reginster JY, De Terlizzi F, Cadossi R (2000) Phalangeal osteosonogrammetry study: age-related changes, diagnostic sensitivity, and discrimination power. The Phalangeal Osteosonogrammetry Study Group. J Bone Miner Res 15:1603–1614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of FoggiaFoggiaItaly
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyHospital “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza”San Giovanni RotondoItaly

Personalised recommendations