Gynaecological Neoplasia

  • Kieran McHugh
  • Kirsteen McDonald
  • Edwin Jesudason
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Gynaecological neoplasms in childhood are not common and malignancies are rare. Whilst the age standardised rate for all cancers in UK girls (0–14 years) is 127 per million, the rate of malignant germ cell tumours (GCTs) is only 2 per million. The commonest paediatric gynaecological tumours are GCTs of the ovary and rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus, vagina and cervix. Ovarian tumours in childhood are more commonly benign than malignant. Between 1991 and 2000, the United Kingdom National Registry of Childhood Tumours recorded 126 ovarian tumours and 37 arising in the rest of the female reproductive tract amongst girls aged 0–14. Of the ovarian tumours, there were 112(89%) GCTs, 6(5%) carcinomas, 6(5%) lymphomas, 1(1%) neuroblastoma and 1(1%) mesothelioma. Amongst the non-ovarian reproductive tract tumours, there were 19(51%) rhabdomyosarcomas, 12(32%) GCTs, 5(14%) carcinomas and 1(3%) other sarcoma. Tumours usually associated with adults, such as squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix, are also rarely seen in adolescent patients. Imaging is useful before surgery in determining tumour origin, characteristics, extent, local invasion and distant spread. Ultrasound is the first line imaging modality for any newly diagnosed or suspected pelvic mass lesion, followed ideally when necessary by MRI. MRI avoids the radiation associated with CT scanning, gives excellent tissue contrast, and should be the next line of investigation when a mass is discovered.


Ovarian Tumour Granulosa Cell Tumour Immature Teratoma Malignant Germ Cell Tumour Endodermal Sinus Tumour 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Germ cell tumour


Children’s cancer study group


Apparent diffusion coefficient


Positron emission tomography—computed tomography


Short-tau inversion recovery


Endodermal sinus tumour


Alpha fetoprotein


Pediatric oncology group




Massive ovarian oedema




Intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study


Inferior vena cava






Computed tomography


Magnetic resonance imaging


United Kingdom


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kieran McHugh
    • 1
  • Kirsteen McDonald
    • 2
  • Edwin Jesudason
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Great Ormond Street Hospital for ChildrenLondonUK
  2. 2.Barts and The London NHS TrustLondonUK
  3. 3.Children’s Hospital Los AngelesUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Alder Hey Children’s Hospital and University of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

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