Clinical Neuro and Beyond
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most important methods for the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of disease, and in particular neurological disease. Today, magnets up to 3 T are in use in clinical routine. An important trend in clinical care for the coming years could be the introduction of MRI systems with even higher static magnetic fields, particularly 7 T. These imagers offer the potential to significantly enhance not only spatial resolution, but also certain tissue contrasts. In this chapter, initial research results are presented which already demonstrate potential advantages of the ultra-high magnetic field for neurological diagnostics. Although the technical challenges for examining organs in the abdomen and thorax are much higher than in the brain, very preliminary work is also being pursued targeted toward clinical application of 7 T in these body regions. Further investigations are required, however, to evaluate the clinical relevance of these techniques. It can be expected that 7 T MRI scanners could find their way from the research environment into clinical practice in the next few years, with initial applications very likely in the brain; thus, the significance of MRI for neurology will once again be extended.
KeywordsCerebellar Cortex Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent Dentate Nucleus Cerebellar Nucleus Cavernous Hemangioma
Parts of this work were supported by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG Ti 239/9-1), the Dr. Werner Jackstädt Foundation, and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, BMBF 01EZ0716).
- International Electrotechnical Commission (2008) Medical electrical equipment – Part 2–33: Particular requirements for the safety of magnetic resonance equipment for medical diagnosis. IEC 60601-2-33. 2.2 edn.Google Scholar
- Kueper M, Diedrichsen J, Thuerling M et al (2009) Functional imaging of the deep cerebellar nuclei using 7 T MRI. In: Neuroscience, Society for Neuroscience. Chicago :BB32 460.8Google Scholar
- Maderwald S, Küper M, Thürling M et al (2009a) 3D visualization of deep cerebellar nuclei using 7T MRI. In: Proceedings of the 17th scientific meeting. International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Honolulu, p 963Google Scholar
- Maderwald S, Orzada S, Schäfer L et al (2009b) 7T Human in vivo cardiac imaging with an 8-Channel transmit/receive array. In: Proceedings 17th Scientific Meeting, International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. Honolulu, p 821Google Scholar
- Monninghoff C, Maderwald S, Theysohn JM et al (2009a) Evaluation of intracranial aneurysms with 7 T versus 1.5 T time-of-flight MR angiography—initial experience. Rofo 181:16–23Google Scholar
- Monninghoff C, Maderwald S, Wanke I (2009b) Pre-interventional assessment of a vertebrobasilar aneurysm with 7 Tesla time-of-flight MR angiography. Rofo 181:266–268Google Scholar
- Orzada S, Quick H, Ladd M et al (2009) A flexible 8-channel transmit/receive body coil for 7 T human imaging. In: Proceedings of the 17th scientific meeting, International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Honolulu, p 2999Google Scholar
- Orzada S, Maderwald S, Kraff O et al (2010) 16-channel Tx/Rx body coil for RF shimming with selected Cp modes at 7T. In: Proceedings 18th Scientific Meeting, International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. Stockholm, p 50Google Scholar
- Srinivasan R, Ratiney H, Hammond-Rosenbluth KE, Pelletier D, Nelson SJ (2009) MR spectroscopic imaging of glutathione in the white and gray matter at 7 T with an application to multiple sclerosis. Magn Reson Imaging (in press)Google Scholar
- Sultan F, Möck M, Thier P (2000) Functional architecture of the cerebellar system. In: Klockgether T (ed) Neurological Ataxia, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 1–52Google Scholar
- Umutlu L, Bitz AK, Maderwald S et al (2010) 7T liver MRI in humans: initial results. In: Proceedings of the 18th scientific meeting, International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Stockholm, p 2624Google Scholar
- United States Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for industry and FDA staff: criteria for significant risk investigations of magnetic resonance diagnostic devices, 2003Google Scholar