What to do with All that Signal? Issues of High-resolution MRI

Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


The basic description of field strength–related changes, i.e., in magnetization and relaxation times, as well as challenges, such as B 1 or B 0 inhomogeneity and SAR, has been given in  Contrasts, Mechanisms, and Sequences, together with some of the consequences and remedies for major MR imaging methods. In this chapter, a few general aspects and possible exploitations of the increased SNR at high field are described. In addition, limitations of improvements at high field strength and currently remaining challenges are discussed and set the stage for the following chapters on particular applications of high-field MR.


Flip Angle High Field Strength Lower Field Strength Diffusion Tensor Imaging Measurement High Magnetic Field Strength 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Cho Z-H (2010) 7.0 Tesla MRI: brain atlas: in vivo atlas with cryomacrotome correlation. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  2. Hargreaves BA et al. (2004) Variable-rate selective excitation for rapid MRI sequences. Magn Reson Med 52(3):590–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hennig J, Scheffler K (2001) Hyperechoes. Magn Reson Med 46(1):6–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hennig J, Weigel M, Scheffler K (2003) Multiecho sequences with variable refocusing flip angles: optimization of signal behavior using smooth transitions between pseudo steady states (TRAPS). Magn Reson Med 49(3):527–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hurley AC et al. (2010) Tailored RF pulse for magnetization inversion at ultrahigh field. Magn Reson Med 63(1):51–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kang CK et al. (2009) Imaging and analysis of lenticulostriate arteries using 7.0-Tesla magnetic resonance angiography. Magn Reson Med 61(1):136–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ladd ME (2007) High-field-strength magnetic resonance: potential and limits. Top Magn Reson Imaging 18(2):139–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Marques JP et al. (2010) MP2RAGE, a self bias-field corrected sequence for improved segmentation and T1-mapping at high field. Neuroimage 49(2):1271–1281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Norris DG (1991) Ultrafast low-angle RARE: U-FLARE. Magn Reson Med 17(2):539–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Van de Moortele PF et al. (2009) T1 weighted brain images at 7 Tesla unbiased for proton density, T2* contrast and RF coil receive B1 sensitivity with simultaneous vessel visualization. Neuroimage 46(2):432–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Weigel M, Hennig J (2008) Development and optimization of T2 weighted methods with reduced RF power deposition (Hyperecho-TSE) for magnetic resonance imaging. Z Med Phys 18(3):151–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Wiesinger F, Boesiger P, Pruessmann KP (2004) Electrodynamics and ultimate SNR in parallel MR imaging. Magn Reson Med 52(2):376–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Zwanenburg JJ et al (2010) Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI at 7.0 Tesla: comparison with 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla. Eur Radiol 20(4):915–922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Magnetic ResonanceOtto-von-Guericke UniversityMagdeburgGermany 

Personalised recommendations