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Emergence, Diversity, and Control of New Psychoactive Substances: A Global Perspective

  • Justice N. A. TetteyEmail author
  • Conor Crean
  • Susan C. Ifeagwu
  • Martin Raithelhuber
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 252)

Abstract

The phenomenon of new psychoactive substances (NPS), which came to the attention of the wider international community at the beginning of the 2010s, has been unprecedented in terms of the sheer number of substances, their rate of emergence, chemical diversity, and range of pharmacological effects. In particular, the chemical diversity has been a challenge to promoting a better understanding of the NPS market – a fundamental requirement for effective policy decisions and interventions. This manuscript highlights the significant chemical diversity of NPS and describes an alternative, complementary, and pragmatic classification based on pharmacological effects, which aligns NPS to traditional controlled drugs and enhances understanding of the phenomenon. It further reviews actions taken at the international level to address the NPS issue, including changes in the scope of control of some NPS and the enhancement of the United Nations Early Warning Advisory on NPS to deal with the dynamics and evolution of the market.

Keywords

Early warning advisory New psychoactive substances Scheduling 

Acronyms of the Discussed New Psychoactive Substances (NPS)

25B-NBOMe

2-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethan-1-amine

25C-NBOMe

2-(4-Chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethan-1-amine

25I-NBOMe

2-(4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethan-1-amine

4,4′-DMAR

4-Methyl-5-(p-tolyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-amine

4Br-alpha-PVP

1-(4-Bromophenyl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one

4Cl-alpha-PVP

1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one

4F-alpha-PVP

1-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one

4-MEC

2-Ethylamino-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one

5F-APINACA

N-(Adamantan-1-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide

Acetylfentanyl

N-(1-Phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylacetamide

AH-7921

3,4-Dichloro-N-((1-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl)methyl)benzamide

alpha-PVP

1-Phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one

AM-2201

[1-(5-Fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl](naphthalen-1-yl)methanone

APINACA (AKB-48)

N-(Adamantan-1-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide

Benzylpiperazine

1-(Phenylmethyl)piperazine

Butyrfentanyl

N-(1-Phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylbutyramide

CP-47,497

rel-2-((1R,3S)-3-Hydroxycyclohexyl)-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol

Ethcathinone

2-(Ethylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-one

Ethylone

1-(Benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(ethylamino)propan-1-one

Ethylphenidate

Ethyl-2-phenyl-2-(piperidin-2-yl)acetate

JWH-018

Naphthalen-1-yl(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone

MDMB-CHMICA

Methyl N-{[1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]carbonyl}-3-methyl-L-valinate

MDPV

1-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one

Mephedrone

2-(Methylamino)-1-(p-tolyl)propan-1-one

Methiopropamine

N-Methyl-1-(thiophen-2-yl)propan-2-amine

Methoxetamine

2-(Ethylamino)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexanone

Methylone

1-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(methylamino)propan-1-one

MT-45

1-Cyclohexyl-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine

Pentedrone

2-(Methylamino)-1-phenylpentan-1-one

PMMA

1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine

U-47700

3,4-Dichloro-N-((1S,2S)-2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl)-N-methylbenzamide

UR-144

(1-Pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone

XLR-11

[1-(5-Fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl](2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Justice N. A. Tettey
    • 1
    Email author
  • Conor Crean
    • 1
  • Susan C. Ifeagwu
    • 1
  • Martin Raithelhuber
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory and Scientific Section, Research and Trend Analysis Branch, United Nations Office on Drugs and CrimeVienna International CentreViennaAustria

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