Gating Pore Currents in Sodium Channels

  • J. R. GroomeEmail author
  • A. Moreau
  • L. Delemotte
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 246)


Voltage-gated sodium channels belong to the superfamily of voltage-gated cation channels. Their structure is based on domains comprising a voltage sensor domain (S1–S4 segments) and a pore domain (S5–S6 segments). Mutations in positively charged residues of the S4 segments may allow protons or cations to pass directly through the gating pore constriction of the voltage sensor domain; these anomalous currents are referred to as gating pore or omega (ω) currents. In the skeletal muscle disorder hypokalemic periodic paralysis, and in arrhythmic dilated cardiomyopathy, inherited mutations of S4 arginine residues promote omega currents that have been shown to be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of these sodium channel disorders. Characterization of gating pore currents in these channelopathies and with artificial mutations has been possible by measuring the voltage-dependence and selectivity of these leak currents. The basis of gating pore currents and the structural basis of S4 movement through the gating pore has also been studied extensively with molecular dynamics. These simulations have provided valuable insight into the nature of S4 translocation and the physical basis for the effects of mutations that promote permeation of protons or cations through the gating pore.


Arrhythmic dilated cardiomyopathy Gating pore Hypokalemic periodic paralysis Molecular dynamics Omega current Sodium channel 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesIdaho State UniversityPocatelloUSA
  2. 2.Institut NeuroMyogene, ENS de Lyon, Site MONODLyonFrance
  3. 3.Science for Life Laboratory, Department of PhysicsKTH Royal Institute of TechnologySolnaSweden

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