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AI Regulation in the EU: The Future Interplay Between Frameworks

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YSEC Yearbook of Socio-Economic Constitutions 2023

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Abstract

The purpose of this contribution is to analyse existing and proposed AI regulations and to identify the critical implications of their future interplay, that is, how the regulatory framework as a whole will function in the future. Given the abundance of legislation, it is essential that all measures dovetail into each other; otherwise, legal uncertainty, fragmentation, and regulatory gaps would be inevitable.

This research has been conducted with the help of project funding granted by the Academy of Finland, decision number 330884 (2020). All online sources were last accessed on 09 October 2023.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Georgieva et al. (2022), p. 697.

  2. 2.

    Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (General Data Protection Regulation), OJ L 119, 4.5.2016, pp. 1–88.

  3. 3.

    Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down harmonised Rules on Artificial Intelligence (Artificial Intelligence Act) COM(2021) 206 final.

  4. 4.

    Regulation (EU) 2022/2065 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 October 2022 on a Single Market for Digital Services and amending Directive 2000/31/EC (Digital Services Act), OJ L 277, 27.10.2022, pp. 1–102.

  5. 5.

    Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions ‘Better regulation: Joining forces to make better law’ COM(2021) 219 final, pp. 3, 6.

  6. 6.

    European Commission ‘White Paper On Artificial Intelligence - A European approach to excellence and trust’, COM(2020) 65 final, p. 3. (Hereafter: White Paper).

  7. 7.

    Wirtz et al. (2022), p. 2; White Paper, pp. 10–13.

  8. 8.

    Gasser and Almeida (2017), p. 58.

  9. 9.

    White Paper, p. 3.

  10. 10.

    See, e.g. Volpicelli (2023).

  11. 11.

    Stix (2022), p. 11.

  12. 12.

    Celeste (2021), pp. 216, 217.

  13. 13.

    Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) (2019), p. 7.

  14. 14.

    Madiega (2020), p. 1.

  15. 15.

    Ibid.

  16. 16.

    Monsees and Lambach (2022), p. 377.

  17. 17.

    Stix (2022), p. 11.

  18. 18.

    Ruschemeier (2023), p. 362.

  19. 19.

    Ibid., p. 363.

  20. 20.

    Ibid., p. 362.

  21. 21.

    See also, e.g. Schuett (2023), pp. 3, 14, 15, 16.

  22. 22.

    See, e.g. Wheeler (2023).

  23. 23.

    Smuha (2021), pp. 59, 60.

  24. 24.

    The term ‘Brussels Effect’ describes ‘the EU’s unilateral power to regulate global markets’, meaning that EU legislation influences policies and laws in third countries (Bradford 2020).

  25. 25.

    Kolt (2023), p. 24.

  26. 26.

    Smuha (2021), p. 59.

  27. 27.

    Stuurman and Lachaud (2022), p. 2.

  28. 28.

    See, e.g. Dempsey et al. (2022), p. 8.

  29. 29.

    See, e.g. Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on adapting non-contractual civil liability rules to artificial intelligence (AI Liability Directive) COM(2022) 496 final, Article 2.

  30. 30.

    See also, e.g. Kop (2021), p. 2.

  31. 31.

    Mazzini and Scalzo (2022), p. 27.

  32. 32.

    Veale and Zuiderveen Borgesius (2021), p. 102.

  33. 33.

    Mazzini and Scalzo (2022), p. 27.

  34. 34.

    See AI Act, Explanatory Memorandum, p. 13.

  35. 35.

    See, e.g. European Commission, ‘What is the General Product Safety Regulation?’ <https://commission.europa.eu/business-economy-euro/product-safety-and-requirements/product-safety/general-product-safety-regulation_en>; Directive 2001/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 December 2001 on general product safety OJ L 11, 15.1.2002, pp. 4–17, Recitals 1, 3, 4; Directive 2006/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on machinery, and amending Directive 95/16/EC, OJ L 157, 9.6.2006, pp. 24–86, Recital 3.

  36. 36.

    European Parliament, Artificial Intelligence Act, Amendments adopted by the European Parliament on 14 June 2023 on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on laying down harmonised rules on artificial intelligence (Artificial Intelligence Act) and amending certain Union legislative acts (COM(2021)0206 – C9-0146/2021 – 2021/0106(COD)).

  37. 37.

    Ibid.

  38. 38.

    Ibid.

  39. 39.

    See AI Act, Article 3 (1), Annex I.

  40. 40.

    Ebers et al. (2021), p. 590.

  41. 41.

    See OECD AI Principles Overview, available at <https://oecd.ai/en/ai-principles>.

  42. 42.

    See, e.g. White Paper, p. 17.

  43. 43.

    Ebers (2021), p. 335.

  44. 44.

    See also, e.g. De Cooman (2022), p. 52.

  45. 45.

    Gellert (2021), p. 19.

  46. 46.

    See also, e.g. Varošanec (2022), p. 103.

  47. 47.

    Ebers et al. (2021), pp. 596, 597.

  48. 48.

    See also, e.g. Laux (2023), pp. 5, 6.

  49. 49.

    See, in more detail, Sect. 5.1.

  50. 50.

    Kolt (2023), p. 25.

  51. 51.

    Ebers (2021), p. 331.

  52. 52.

    Pouget (2023).

  53. 53.

    See, e.g. Rühlig (2022).

  54. 54.

    Sartor and Lagioia (2020), p. II.

  55. 55.

    See Article 2 (1) GDPR.

  56. 56.

    Mitrou (2018), p. 26.

  57. 57.

    Ibid., p. 27.

  58. 58.

    Sartor and Lagioia (2020), p. I.

  59. 59.

    Ibid.

  60. 60.

    Mitrou (2018), p. 19.

  61. 61.

    Feiler et al. (2018), pp. 73, 74.

  62. 62.

    Felzmann et al. (2019), p. 3.

  63. 63.

    Mitrou (2018), pp. 54, 55.

  64. 64.

    Ibid., p. 19.

  65. 65.

    Article 6 GDPR; Gil González and de Hert (2019), p. 599.

  66. 66.

    Gellert (2021), p. 20.

  67. 67.

    Dunn and De Gregorio (2022), p. 3.

  68. 68.

    Gellert (2021), p. 20.

  69. 69.

    Regulation (EU) 2022/868 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2022 on European data governance and amending Regulation (EU) 2018/1724 (Data Governance Act), OJ L 152, 3.6.2022, pp. 1–44.

  70. 70.

    Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on harmonised rules on fair access to and use of data (Data Act), COM(2022) 68 final.

  71. 71.

    European Commission, ‘A European Strategy for Data’, <https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/policies/strategy-data>.

  72. 72.

    Kruesz and Zopf (2021), pp. 569, 570.

  73. 73.

    Ruohonen and Mickelsson (2023), p. 2.

  74. 74.

    See, e.g. ibid., p. 7.

  75. 75.

    See also, e.g. ibid., p. 3.

  76. 76.

    See also, Kruesz and Zopf (2021), p. 570.

  77. 77.

    EDPB-EDPS Joint Opinion 03/2021 on the Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on European data governance (Data Governance Act), pp. 41, 42.

  78. 78.

    Kruesz and Zopf (2021), p. 571.

  79. 79.

    Fischer and Piskorz-Ryń (2021), p. 426.

  80. 80.

    European Commission, ‘Data Act – Questions and Answers’, online, 23 February 2022, <https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/qanda_22_1114>.

  81. 81.

    Haeck (2023).

  82. 82.

    Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on harmonised rules on fair access to and use of data (Data Act) COM(2022) 68 final, Explanatory Memorandum, pp. 4, 5.

  83. 83.

    https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/qanda_22_1114.

  84. 84.

    See below Sects. 4.2 and 4.3.2.

  85. 85.

    Leistner and Antoine (2022), p. 340.

  86. 86.

    Kerber (2023), p. 122.

  87. 87.

    Ibid.

  88. 88.

    For selected issues regarding terminology, see below.

  89. 89.

    Leistner and Antoine (2022), p. 343.

  90. 90.

    Kerber (2023), p. 120.

  91. 91.

    Directive 2001/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 December 2001 on general product safety (Text with EEA relevance) OJ L 11, 15.1.2002, pp. 4–17.

  92. 92.

    Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on general product safety, amending Regulation (EU) No 1025/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Council Directive 87/357/EEC and Directive 2001/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, COM(2021) 346 final (Hereafter: GPSR Proposal).

  93. 93.

    European Commission, “COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT: IMPACT ASSESSMENT accompanying the document ‘Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on general product safety, amending Regulation (EU) No 1025/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Council Directive 87/357/EEC and Directive 2001/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council’”, SWD(2021) 168 final, p. 12.

  94. 94.

    Regulation (EU) 2023/988 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 May 2023 on general product safety, amending Regulation (EU) No 1025/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Directive (EU) 2020/1828 of the European Parliament and the Council, and repealing Directive 2001/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Council Directive 87/357/EEC, OJ L 135, 23.5.2023, pp. 1–51.

  95. 95.

    European Commission, ‘What is the General Product Safety Regulation?’, <https://commission.europa.eu/business-economy-euro/product-safety-and-requirements/product-safety/general-product-safety-regulation_en>.

  96. 96.

    GPSR Proposal, Explanatory Memorandum, p. 3.

  97. 97.

    See Article 22 (4), GPSR.

  98. 98.

    GPSR Proposal, Explanatory Memorandum, p. 6.

  99. 99.

    AILD Proposal, Explanatory Memorandum, p. 1.

  100. 100.

    Ibid., Article 1; Explanatory Memorandum, p. 11.

  101. 101.

    European Parliament, Civil liability regime for artificial intelligence, European Parliament resolution of 20 October 2020 with recommendations to the Commission on a civil liability regime for artificial intelligence (2020/2014(INL)), 2021/C 404/05, OJ C 404/107 October 6, 2021, <https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52020IP0276>.

  102. 102.

    European Parliament resolution of 20 October 2020 with recommendations to the Commission on a civil liability regime for artificial intelligence, Annex B, Article 4 and Article 8.

  103. 103.

    European Commission (2022) COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT Accompanying the document Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on adapting non-contractual civil liability rules to artificial intelligence, COM(2022) 496 final, pp. 57 et seq.

  104. 104.

    Council Directive 85/374/EEC of 25 July 1985 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States concerning liability for defective products, OJ L 210, 7.8.1985, pp. 29–33.

  105. 105.

    Hacker (2022), p. 7.

  106. 106.

    Proposal for a DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on liability for defective products, COM(2022) 495 final. Hereafter: PLD Proposal.

  107. 107.

    See Recital 13 PLD Proposal.

  108. 108.

    Hacker (2022), p. 15.

  109. 109.

    The issue related to the differing terminology will be discussed below in Sect. 5.3.

  110. 110.

    MacCarthy and Propp (2021), p. 6.

  111. 111.

    Stuurman and Lachaud (2022), p. 5; Ruschemeier (2023), p. 369.

  112. 112.

    European Parliament, Artificial Intelligence Act, Amendments adopted by the European Parliament on 14 June 2023, Annex III (1) (8) (ab).

  113. 113.

    Stuurman and Lachaud (2022), p. 4.

  114. 114.

    Sartor and Lagioia (2020), p. 56.

  115. 115.

    Council of the European Union, General Approach Interinstitutional File: 2021/0106(COD) of 25 November 2022, p. 6. <https://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-14954-2022-INIT/en/pdf>.

  116. 116.

    Kolt (2023), pp. 32, 33.

  117. 117.

    Ruschemeier (2023), p. 369.

  118. 118.

    Kolt (2023), pp. 32, 33.

  119. 119.

    Ibid., pp. 36, 37.

  120. 120.

    Bogucki et al. (2022), p. 4.

  121. 121.

    Kolt (2023), p. 41.

  122. 122.

    Ruschemeier (2023), p. 373.

  123. 123.

    Zarsky (2017), p. 996.

  124. 124.

    Sartor and Lagioia (2020), p. II.

  125. 125.

    Consent fatigue describes the state of consumers being so used to ticking boxes in privacy notices online that they have lost their actual function of information and warning. See, e.g. Turton (2016).

  126. 126.

    Commission Staff Working Document Impact Assessment Report Accompanying the document Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on harmonised rules on fair access to and use of data (Data Act), SWD(2022) 34 final, pp. 16, 128.

  127. 127.

    European Parliament Research Service Briefing, October 2022, ‘The Data Act’, pp. 2, 3. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2022/733681/EPRS_BRI(2022)733681_EN.pdf.

  128. 128.

    Recital 31 Data Act.

  129. 129.

    Graef and Husovec (2022), p. 1.

  130. 130.

    European Parliament Research Service Briefing, October 2022, ‘The Data Act’, 2 https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2022/733681/EPRS_BRI(2022)733681_EN.pdf.

  131. 131.

    Gyevnar et al. (2023), pp. 5, 6.

  132. 132.

    Gasser and Almeida (2017), p. 58.

  133. 133.

    Baloup et al. (2021), p. 9.

  134. 134.

    Regulation (EU) 2018/1807 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 November 2018 on a framework for the free flow of non-personal data in the European Union (Text with EEA relevance.), OJ L 303, 28.11.2018, pp. 59–68.

  135. 135.

    Article 4 (1) PLD Proposal.

  136. 136.

    See above Sect. 4.1.3.

  137. 137.

    Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on harmonised rules on fair access to and use of data (Data Act) COM(2022) 68 final, Explanatory Memorandum, 1, 7; Recitals 1, 19, 22.

  138. 138.

    See, e.g. Recitals 9 (b), 12 (a), 45 (a), 50; Articles 4 (a), 7 (2) (f), 13, 14 (4), 52, 55.

  139. 139.

    Bogucki et al. (2022), p. 9.

  140. 140.

    See also, e.g. Sartor and Lagioia (2020), p. 75.

  141. 141.

    Schütte et al. (2021), p. 33.

  142. 142.

    European Commission, Press Release, 21 April 2021, ‘Europe fit for the Digital Age: Commission proposes new rules and actions for excellence and trust in Artificial Intelligence’, <https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_21_1682>.

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Schütte, B. (2024). AI Regulation in the EU: The Future Interplay Between Frameworks. In: Gill-Pedro, E., Moberg, A. (eds) YSEC Yearbook of Socio-Economic Constitutions 2023. YSEC Yearbook of Socio-Economic Constitutions, vol 2023. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/16495_2023_64

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