Microwave-Assisted Cationic Ring-Opening Polymerization of 2-Oxazolines

  • Klaus P. Luef
  • Richard Hoogenboom
  • Ulrich S. Schubert
  • Frank WiesbrockEmail author
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 274)


More than any other polymer class, the synthesis of (co-)poly(2-oxazoline)s has benefited tremendously from the introduction of microwave reactors into chemical laboratories. This review focuses on research activities in the area of (co-)poly(2-oxazoline)s prepared by microwave-assisted syntheses and summarizes the current state-of-the-art for microwave-assisted syntheses of 2-oxazoline monomers, microwave-assisted ring-opening (co-)polymerizations of 2-oxazolines, and prominent examples of post-polymerization modifications of (co-)poly(2-oxazoline)s. Special attention is paid to kinetic analyses of the microwave-assisted polymerization of 2-oxazolines and to the discussion of non-thermal microwave effects.


Microwave-assisted polymerization Non-thermal microwave effects Poly(2-oxazoline) Post-polymerization modification Ring-opening polymerization 



Atomic force microscopy




Conventional heating


Cationic ring-opening polymerization




Dynamic light scattering


Degree of polymerization




Ionic liquid


Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time-of-flight












Poly(ethylene glycol)


Poly(ethylene imine)


Poly(ethylene terephthalate)














Ring-opening polymerization


Size-exclusion chromatography


Weight percent



F.W. and K.P.L. would like to gratefully acknowledge the Austrian Science Fund FWF for funding of the project I1123-N19 (MimiFlow). The work was performed at the PCCL in the context of the project PolyComp within the framework of the COMET-program of the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology and Federal Ministry for Economy, Family and Youth. The PCCL is funded by the Austrian Government and the State Governments of Styria, Lower Austria and Upper Austria. U.S.S. thanks the Carl-Zeiss Foundation and the TMWWdG (State of Thuringia).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus P. Luef
    • 1
    • 2
  • Richard Hoogenboom
    • 3
  • Ulrich S. Schubert
    • 4
    • 5
  • Frank Wiesbrock
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbHLeobenAustria
  2. 2.Graz University of Technology, Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, NAWI GrazGrazAustria
  3. 3.Supramolecular Chemistry Group, Department of Organic and Macromolecular ChemistryGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  4. 4.Laboratory for Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC)Friedrich Schiller University JenaJenaGermany
  5. 5.Jena Center for Soft Matter (JCSM), Friedrich Schiller University JenaJenaGermany

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