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Liquid Crystals of Cellulosics: Fascinating Ordered Structures for the Design of Functional Material Systems

  • Yoshiyuki NishioEmail author
  • Junichi Sato
  • Kazuki Sugimura
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 271)

Abstract

This article surveys progress in both fundamental and applied research related to cellulosic liquid crystals, mainly of chiral nematic order. These liquid crystals are divided into two different classes, namely cellulosic macromolecules and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), depending on the mesogenic constituent. We start with a review of the fundamental and chiroptical characteristics of molecular liquid crystals of representative cellulose derivatives and then discuss recent efforts on the design and construction of functional material systems (such as stimuli-sensitive optical media and novel hybrids with minerals). These systems make use of the liquid crystalline molecular assembly of cellulosics. The survey of the other class of cellulosic liquid crystals deals with colloidal suspensions of CNCs obtained by acid hydrolysis of native cellulose fibers. Following the review of fundamental aspects related to the isotropic–anisotropic phase separation behavior of CNC suspensions, attention is directed to current applications of free-standing colored films, polymer composites reinforced with CNCs as mesofiller, and inorganic hybridizations using CNC chiral nematics as template. Some comments and the outlook for future explorations are also offered.

Keywords

Cellulose Chirality Composites Derivatives Functional materials Hybrids Liquid crystal Nanocrystal Phase behavior Polysaccharides 

Abbreviations

(E-CE)C

Ethyl cyanoethyl cellulose

3-CF3-CTC

Cellulose 3-(trifluoromethyl)phenycarbamate

3-Cl-CPC

Cellulose 3-chlorophenylcarbamate

4-Cl-CPC

Cellulose 4-chlorophenylcarbamate

5FPEC

Pentafluoropropionyl ethyl cellulose

AA

Acetic acid

AEC

Acetyl ethyl cellulose

AGU

Anhydroglucose unit

APC

Acetoxypropyl cellulose

ATBC

Amylose tris(n-butylcarbamate)

ATEC

Amylose tris(ethylcarbamate)

ATHC

Amylose tris(n-hexylcarbamate)

ATPC

Aamylose triphenylcarbamate

ATRP

Atom transfer radical polymerization

BC

Bacterial cellulose

BEC

Butyryl ethyl cellulose

CD

Circular dichroism

ChtNC

Chitin nanocrystal

CNC

Cellulose nanocrystal (or nanocrystallite)

CPC

Cellulose phenylcarbamate

CTC

Cellulose triphenylcarbamate (or tricarbanilate)

CtsPC

Chitosan phenylcarbamate

DCA

Dichloroacetic acid

DEME

Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether

DEMM

Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether

DMA

Dynamic mechanical analysis

DMAc

N,N-Dimethylacetamide

DMF

N,N-Dimethyformamide

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

DPs

Degree of polymerization (or polyaddition) in the side chain

DS

Degree of substitution

DSacyl

Degree of acyl substitution

EC

Ethyl cellulose

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

HAp

Hydroxyapatite

HPC

Hydroxypropyl cellulose

IL

Ionic liquid

IPN

Interpenetrating network

LCST

Lower critical solution temperature

MS

Molar substitution

ORD

Optical rotatory dispersion

P

Chiral nematic (or cholesteric) pitch

PAA

Poly(acrylic acid)

PEC

Propionyl ethyl cellulose

PEDOT

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

PEG

Poly(ethylene glycol)

PEO

Poly(ethylene oxide)

PHEMA

Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)

POM

Polarized optical microscope

PVP

Poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

Tc

Cloud point

TEM

Transmission electron microscope

TEMPO

2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl

TEOS

Tetraethyl orthosilicate (or Tetraethoxysilane)

Tg

Glass transition temperature

THF

Terahydrofuran

Ti

Isotropization temperature

TMOS

Tetramethl orthosilicate (or Tetramethoxysilane)

TRIMM

Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether

WAXD

Wide angle X-ray diffraction

λM

Wavelength of maximum light reflectance

Notes

Acknowledgements

One of the authors (YN) is grateful to Professor O. J. Rojas of Aalto University for his encouragement and helpful suggestions as well as for his kind invitation to contribute to this special volume. The authors also wish to convey many thanks to Professor Y. Teramoto of Gifu University, and to the graduate students K. Horikiri, T. Ogiwara, and T. Hirata in our laboratory for their assistance in the preparation of this chapter.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshiyuki Nishio
    • 1
    Email author
  • Junichi Sato
    • 1
  • Kazuki Sugimura
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Forest and Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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