Enzyme-Encapsulated Layer-by-Layer Assemblies: Current Status and Challenges Toward Ultimate Nanodevices

Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 229)


Alternate layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption has received much attention as an emerging methodology. Biocompatibility is the most prominent advantage of the LbL assembly process because the technique employs mild conditions for film construction. Most enzymes, especially water-soluble ones, have charged sites at their surfaces so that electrostatic LbL adsorption is suitable for construction of various protein organizations. In this review chapter, we summarize recent developments on enzyme-encapsulated LbL devices and their related functions where “encapsulated” does not always entail entrapment within spherical structures but generally includes immobilization of enzymes within the LbL structures. Recent examples, with various functions such as reactor sensors and medical applications, are described within a classification of structural types, i.e., thin films and spherical capsules. In addition to conventional applications, advanced systems including integration of LbL structures into advanced devices such as microchannels, field effect transistors, and flow injection amperometric sensors are introduced as well as recent developments in hybridization of LbL assemblies with functional nanomaterials such as carbon nanotube, dendrimers, nanoparticles, lipid assemblies, and mesoporous materials, all of which can enhance bio-related functions of LbL assemblies.


Devices Enzymes Hollow capsules Layer-by-layer assemblies Thin films 





Adenosine diphosphate


α-1-Fetoprotein antigen


Alkaline phosphatase


Adenosine triphosphate


Bimodal mesoporous silica


Bovine serum albumin


Choline oxidase


Carbon nanotube

Cyt P 450cam

Cytochrome P450cam




Delta-like 1


Dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine




Deoxyribonucleic acid




Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine


Double-stranded DNA


Enzyme field-effect transistor


Flavin adenine dinucleotide




Glassy carbon electrode


Glucose dehydrogenase


Glucose oxidase


Hyaluronic acid




Horseradish peroxidase


Human serum albumin


Immunoglobulin G


Ion-sensitive field-effect transistor


Indium tin oxide






Lactate dehydrogenase


Lactate oxidase




Multi-wall carbon nanotube


Organophosphorus hydrolase


Poly(acrylic acid)


Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)




Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)




Poly(ethylene terephthalate)


Poly(l-glutamic acid)


Phospholipase A2




Poly(methacrylic acid)


Poly(methyl methacrylate)








Quartz crystal microbalance


Self-assembled monolayer


Single-walled carbon nanotube



This work was partly supported by World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI Initiative), MEXT, Japan and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) program of Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katsuhiko Ariga
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qingmin Ji
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jonathan P. Hill
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.World Premier International (WPI) Research Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA)National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS)TsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Core Research of Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST)Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)TokyoJapan

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