Skip to main content

Nanocelluloses as Innovative Polymers in Research and Application

Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER,volume 205)

Abstract

Cellulose is a fascinating and almost inexhaustible and sustainable natural polymeric raw material characterized by exciting properties such as hydrophilicity, chirality, biodegradability, broad chemical-modifying capacity, and the formation of different semicrystalline fiber morphologies. If cellulosics such as bacterial cellulose or strongly disintegrated wood cellulose are composed of nanosized fibers and the nanofiber structuring determines the product properties, these polymers are described as nanocelluloses. Because of the extraordinary supramolecular structure and exceptional product characteristics as high-molecular and high-crystalline cellulosics with a water content up to 99%, nanocelluloses require increasing attention. This review assembles the current knowledge in research, development, and application in the field of nanocelluloses through examples. The topics combine selected results on nanocelluloses from bacteria and wood as well as their use as technical membranes and composites with the first long-time study of cellulosics in the animal body for the development of medical devices such as artificial blood vessels, and the application of bacterial nanocellulose as animal wound dressings and cosmetic tissues.

  • Nanocelluloses
  • Membranes
  • Composites
  • Medical devices
  • Animal wound dressings

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/12_097
  • Chapter length: 48 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   309.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-540-37103-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   399.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   399.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Abbreviations

B:

BASYC®

BASYC® :

bacterial-synthesized cellulose

BC:

bacterial cellulose

ca:

carotid artery

CD-31:

cluster of differentiation – 31

CMC:

carboxymethyl cellulose

DN:

double network

DSM:

Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen

E. coli :

Escherichia coli

ec:

endothelial cell

EDL:

musculus extensor digitorum longus

EtOH:

ethanol

fb:

fibroblast

fbb:

fibroblast branches

GlcNAc:

N-acetyl glucosamine

HS:

Hestrin–Schramm

l:

lumen

MC:

methyl cellulose

MFC:

micro-fibrilated cellulose

NMR:

nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

PET:

poly(ethylene terephthalate)

PTFE:

poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

SEM:

scanning electron microscopy

TEM:

transmission electron microscopy

UV:

ultraviolet

vr:

vitalized region

References

  1. Klemm D, Heublein B, Fink H-P, Bohn A (2005) Angew Chem Int Ed 44:3358

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Sixta H (ed) (2006) Handbook of Pulp. Wiley, Weinheim

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ljungberg N, Bonini C, Bortolussi F, Boisson C, Heux L, Cavaille JY (2005) Biomacromolecules 6:2732

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Samir MASA, Alloin F, Dufresne A (2005) Biomacromolecules 6:612

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Kontturi E, Thüne PC, Alexeev A, Niemantsverdriet JW (2005) Polymer 46:3307

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Brown RM Jr, Saxena IM (2004) Cellulose 11:491

    Google Scholar 

  7. Czaja W, Krystynovicz A, Bielecki S, Brown RM Jr (2006) Biomaterials 27:145

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Shah J, Brown RM Jr (2005) Appl Microbiol Biotech 66:352

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Song H, Zhang Y, Guo H (2004) Ziran Kexueban 29:73

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Horii F, Erata T (2006) 231st ACS National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, USA

    Google Scholar 

  11. Brown AJ (1886) J Chem Soc 49:432

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Hestrin S, Schramm M (1954) Biochem J 58:345

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Fink H-P, Purz HJ, Bohn A, Kunze J (1997) Macromol Symp 120:207

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Yano H, Sugiyama J, Nakagaito AN, Nogi M, Matsuura T, Hikita M, Handa K (2005) Adv Mater 17:153

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Yano H, Nakahara S (2004) J Mater Sci 39:1635

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Klemm D, Philipp B, Heinze T, Heinze U, Wagenknecht W (1998) The accessibility of cellulose. In: Comprehensive Cellulose Chemistry. Wiley, Weinheim, p 29

    Google Scholar 

  17. http://www.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/*/27303 , 16.09.2005

  18. Turbak AF, Snyder FW, Sandberg KR (1983) J Appl Polym Sci: Appl Polym Symp 37:815

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Nakagaito AN, Yano H (2005) Appl Phys A 80:155

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Nakagaito AN, Yano H (2004) Appl Phys A 78:547

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Takahashi N, Okubo K, Fujii T (2005) Bamboo J 22:81

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Suzuki M, Hattori Y (2004) WO Patent 2004009902

    Google Scholar 

  23. http://www.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/*/39683 , 16.09.2005

  24. Miyagawa A, Fujikawa A (1992) Adv Filtr Sep Tech 6:314

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Matsuda Y, Hirose M, Ueno K (2001) US Patent 6183596

    Google Scholar 

  26. Matsuda Y (2000) Sen'i Gakkaishi 56:192

    Google Scholar 

  27. Ioelovich M, Leykin A (2004) Sci Israel – Technol Adv 6:17

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Koga S (2000) JP Patent 2000303386

    Google Scholar 

  29. Kyomori K, Tadokoro I, Matsumura T (2005) JP Patent 2005126867

    Google Scholar 

  30. Fukuda S, Takahashi M, Yuyama M, Oka N (2001) JP Patent 2001293033

    Google Scholar 

  31. Kumar V (2002) WO Patent 2002022172

    Google Scholar 

  32. http://www.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/729/22027 , 16.09.2005

  33. http://www.ofek.org.il/eng/public.php , 25.07.2005

  34. Gindl W, Keckes J (2004) Comp Sci Technol 64:2407

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. George J, Ramana KV, Sabapathy SN, Bawa AS (2005) World J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:1323

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Tokura S, Tamura H (2005) 229th ACS National Meeting, San Diego, CA, USA

    Google Scholar 

  37. Yamanaka S, Ishihara M, Sugiyama J (2000) Cellulose 7:213

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Haigler CH, White AR, Brown AR Jr, Cooper KM (1982) J Cell Biology 94:64

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Astley OM, Chanliaud E, Donald AM, Gidley MJ (2001) Int J Biol Macromol 29:193

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Seifert M, Hesse S, Kabrelian V, Klemm D (2004) J Polym Sci A1 42:463

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Sakairi N, Suzuki S, Ueno K, Han SM, Nishi N, Tokura S (1998) Carbohydr Polym 37:409

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Ciechanska D (2004) Fibres Textil Eastern Eur 12:69

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Weimer PJ, Hackney JM, Jung HJG, Hatfield RD (2000) J Agric Food Chem 48:1727

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Tokoh C, Takabe K, Fujita M, Saiki H (1998) Cellulose 5:249

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Tokoh C, Takabe K, Sugiyama J, Fujita M (2002) Cellulose 9:351

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Kacurakova M, Smith AC, Gidley MJ, Wilson RH (2002) Carbohydr Res 337:1145

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Ishida T, Sugano Y, Nakai T, Shoda M (2002) Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66:1677

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Ishiada T, Mitari M, Sugano Y, Shoda M (2003) Biotechnol Bioeng 83:474

    Google Scholar 

  49. Chao Y, Mitarai M, Sugano Y, Shoda M (2001) Biotechnol Prog 17:781

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Dubey V, Pandey LK, Saxena C (2005) J Memb Sci 251:131

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Dubey V, Saxena C, Singh L, Ramana KV, Chauhan RS (2002) Sep Purif Technol 27:163

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Pandey LK, Saxena C, Dubey V (2005) Sep Purif Technol 42:213

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Nakayama A, Kakugo A, Gong JP, Osada Y, Takai M, Erata T, Kawano S (2004) Adv Funct Mater 14:1124

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Nakagaito AN, Iwamoto S, Yano H (2005) Appl Phys A 80:93

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. Nogi M, Handa K, Nakagaito AN, Yano H (2005) Appl Phys Lett 87:243110/1

    Google Scholar 

  56. Choi Y-J, Ahn Y, Kang M-S, Jun H-K, Kim IS, Moon S-H (2004) J Chem Technol Biotechnol 79:79

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Grunert M, Winter WT (2002) J Polym Environ 10:27

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Evans BR, O'Neil H, Howe JY, Grennbaum E (2005) 230th ACS National Meeting, Washington, DC, USA

    Google Scholar 

  59. Evans BR, O'Neil H, Hugh M, Malyvanh VP, Lee I, Woodward J (2003) Biosens Bioelectron 18:917

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Daoud WA, Xin JH, Zhang Y-H (2005) Surf Sci 599:69

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Zhang D, Qi L (2005) Chem Commun 21:2735

    Google Scholar 

  62. Katagiri Y, Kakizaki Y, Endo H, Mizuno T (2004) JP Patent 2004277904

    Google Scholar 

  63. Katagiri Y (2004) JP Patent 2004198981

    Google Scholar 

  64. Hutchens SA, Evans BR, O'Neill HM (2004) Abstracts, 56th Southeast Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA

    Google Scholar 

  65. Klemm D, Schumann D, Udhardt U, Marsch S (2001) Prog Polym Sci 26:1561

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Klemm D, Udhardt U, Marsch S, Schumann D (1999) Polym News 24:373

    Google Scholar 

  67. Schumann D, Marsch S, Geyer U, Stein A, Heinze Th, Klemm D, Schmauder HP (1996) Jubilee Congress of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Zurich, Switzerland

    Google Scholar 

  68. Schumann D, Marsch S, Geyer U, Klemm D, Schmauder HP (1997) 47. Jahreskongreß der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Hamburg, Germany

    Google Scholar 

  69. Marsch S, Udhardt U, Schumann D (1999) VII Congress of Polish Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Esthetic Surgery, Polanica Zdroj, Poland

    Google Scholar 

  70. Udhardt URE, Marsch SE, Klemm DO, Schumann DA (1999) The Third International Conference on Advanced Polymers via Macromolecular Engineering, Colonial Williamsburg, USA

    Google Scholar 

  71. Schumann DA, Marsch SE (1999) Congress, Surgery Room of the 21st Century, Glasgow, UK

    Google Scholar 

  72. Udhardt URE, Klemm DO, Marsch SE, Schumann DA (2000) 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, USA

    Google Scholar 

  73. Marsch S, Udhardt U, Wurdinger J, Schumann D (2000) Fifth EFSM Congress of the European Federation for Societies of Microsurgery, Coimbra, Portugal

    Google Scholar 

  74. Schumann D, Marsch S, Udhardt U, Klemm D (2000) 11th Annual Meeting of EURAPS, Berlin, Germany

    Google Scholar 

  75. Svensson A, Nicklasson E, Harrah T, Panilaitis B, Kaplan DL, Brittberg M, Gatenholm P (2005) Biomaterials 26:419

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. Bäckdahl H, Helenius G, Bodin A, Nannmark U, Johansson BR, Risberg B, Gatenholm P (2006) Biomaterials 27:2141

    Google Scholar 

  77. White DG, Brown RM Jr (1989) Prospects for the commercialization of the biosynthesis of microbial cellulose. In: Schuerch C (ed) Cellulose and wood – chemistry and technology. Wiley, New York, p 573

    Google Scholar 

  78. Klemm D, Marsch S, Schumann D, Udhardt U (2001) WO Patent 2001/61026 A1

    Google Scholar 

  79. Romeis B (1968) Mikroskopische Technik. Oldenburg, München Wien, p 303

    Google Scholar 

  80. Christner C, Wyrwa R, Marsch S, Küllertz G, Thiericke R, Grabley S, Schumann D, Fischer G (1999) J Med Chem 42:3515

    Google Scholar 

  81. Grünberg S, Krause A (1996) PhD thesis, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

    Google Scholar 

  82. Schädlich J (1978) Diploma thesis, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

    Google Scholar 

  83. Schädlich J (1998) PhD thesis, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

    Google Scholar 

  84. Tilgner A, Heiner H (1981) Zentralbl Chir 106:961

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. Tilgner A (1986) Z Exp Chir Transplant Künstliche Organe 19:100

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. Schumann D, Marsch S (1995) H + G Zeitschrift Hautkrankheiten 70:391

    Google Scholar 

  87. Bschorer R, Koveker GB, Gehrke G, Jeschke M, Hermanutz V (1994) Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 23:389

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. Hess F, Jerusalem C, Braun B, Grande P (1985) Microsurgery 6:155

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. Joos KM, Sandra A (1990) Microsurgery 11:268

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. Matsumoto H, Hasagawa T, Fuse K, Yamamoto M, Saigusa M (1973) Surgery 74:519

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. Samuels RM, McGeaschie JK, Prendergast FJ, Storrie EA (1989) Microsurgery 10:274

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Bravo C, Tichú F, Misek I, Horký D, Stastyná M, Válka J, Veselýet J (1997) J Acta Vet Brno 66:183

    Google Scholar 

  93. Maeda M, Fukui A, Nakamura T, Inada Y, Tamai S, Haga S, Tatsumi K, Yamamoto H, Ogata S, Iwata H, Ikada Y (1998) J Reconstr Microsurg 14:491

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. Yoneyama T, Ishihara K, Nakabayashi N, Ito M, Mishima Y (1998) J Biomed Mater Res 43:15

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. Doi K, Matsuda T (1997) J Biomed Mater Res 37:573

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. Lanzetta M, Owen E (1992) Microsurgery 13:76

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  97. Ritter EF, Kim YB, Reischl HP, Serafin D, Rudner AM, Kiltzmann B (1997) Surgery 122:888

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. Viskardi PF, Page EA, Clark HG, Serafin D, Klitzmann B (1997) J Reconstruct Microsurgery 13:303

    Google Scholar 

  99. Greisler HP, Tattersall CW, Henderson SC, Cabusao EA, Garfield JD, Kim DU (1992) J Biomed Mater Res 26:1383

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. Guidoin R, Marceau D, Couture J, Rao TJ, Merhi Y, Roy PE, De la Faye D (1989) Biomaterials 10:156

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  101. Hirt SW, Aoki M, Demertzis S, Siclari F, Haverich A, Borst HG (1993) J Vasc Surg 17:538

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  102. Jonas RA, Ziemer G, Schoen FJ, Britton L, Castaneda AR (1988) J Vasc Surg 7:414

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. Sasajima T, Inaba M, Azuma N, Goh K, Koshiko S, Kubo Y, Miyamoto K, Tokita M, Komai T (1997) Artif Organs 21:287

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  104. Sigot-Luizard MF, Domurado D, Sigot M, Guidoin R, Gosselin C, Marois M, Girard JF, King M, Badour B (1984) J Biomed Mater Res 18:895

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  105. Cziperle DJ, Joyce KA, Tattersall CW, Henderson SC, Cabusao EB, Garfield JD, Kim DU, Duhamel RC, Greisler HP (1992) J Cardiovasc Surg 33:407

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  106. Haimovich B, Difazio L, Katz D, Zhang L, Greco RS, Dror Y, Freeman A (1997) J Appl Polym Sci 63:1393

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. Kito H, Matsuda T (1996) J Biomed Mater Res 30:321

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  108. Bhat VD, Klitzman B, Koger K, Truskey GA, Reichert WM (1998) J Biomater Sci Polym 9:1117

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  109. Meinhart J, Deutsch M, Zilla P (1997) ASAIO J 43:M515

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  110. Carr HM, Vohra R, Sharma H, Smyth JV, Rooney OB, Dodd PD, Walker MG (1996) Ann Vasc Surg 10:469

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  111. Vohra R, Thomson GJ, Carr HM, Sharma H, Walker MG (1991) Br J Surg 78:417

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  112. Vohra RK, Thompson GJ, Sharma H, Carr HM, Walker MG (1990) Artif Organs 14:41

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  113. Curti T, Pasquinelli G, Preda P, Freyrie A, Laschi R, D'Addato M (1989) Ann Vasc Surg 3:351

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  114. Herring MB, Compton RS, LeGrand DR, Gardner AL, Madison DL, Glover JL (1987) J Vasc Surg 6:114

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  115. Lindblad B, Burkel WE, Wakefield TW, Graham LM, Stanley JC (1986) Acta Chir Scand 152:653

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  116. Herring MB, Gardner AL, Glover JA (1978) Surgery 84:498

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  117. Hubbel JA, Massia SP, Desai NP, Drumheller PD (1991) Biotechnology 9:568

    Google Scholar 

  118. Zarge JI, Gosselin C, Huang P, Vorp DA, Severyn DA, Greisler HP (1997) J Surg Res 67:4

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  119. Masuda S, Doi K, Satoh S, Oka T, Matsuda T (1997) ASAIO J 43:M530

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  120. Schumann D, Marsch S (1998) Suppl 1, XIV Congress of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, EACMFS, Helsinki, Finland

    Google Scholar 

  121. Marsch S, Schumann D (1998) International Workshop for Microsurgery at the European Surgical Institute, Norderstedt, Germany

    Google Scholar 

  122. Schumann D, Marsch S, Udhardt-Geyer U, Wolf H (1998) Workshop, European Surgical Institute, Hamburg, Germany

    Google Scholar 

  123. Klemm DO, Udhardt URE (1999) Congress, Surgery Room of the 21st Century, Glasgow, UK

    Google Scholar 

  124. Wurdinger J, Marsch S, Udhardt U, Schumann D (2000) Fifth E.F.S.M. Congress (European Federation for Societies of Microsurgery) Coimbra, Portugal, 20:268

    Google Scholar 

  125. Klemm D, Udhardt U, Marsch S, Schumann D (2000) Fourth International Symposium Alternative Cellulose – Manufacturing, Forming, Properies, Rudolstadt, Germany

    Google Scholar 

  126. Bonath K (1998) Kleintierkrankheiten Band 3. Orthopädische Chirurgie und Traumatologie

    Google Scholar 

  127. Morgan PW, Binnington AG, Nmiller CW, Smith DA, Valliant A, Prescott JF (1994) Vet Surg 23:494

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  128. Ramsey DT, Pope ER, Wagner-Mann C, Berg JN, Swaim SG (1995) Am J Vet Res 56:941

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  129. Agren MS, Mertz PM, Franzen L (1997) J Am Acad Dermatol 36:53

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  130. Shaw M, Longhofer K (1999) Veterinary Record 19:374, 408

    Google Scholar 

  131. Howard RD, Stashak TS, Baxter GM (1993) Am J Vet Res 54:2150

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  132. Knottenbelt DC (1997) Veterinary Dermatology 1997:273

    Google Scholar 

  133. Goodrich LR, Moll HD, Crisman MV, Lessard P, Bigbie RB (2000) Am J Vet Res 61:326

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  134. Cockbill SM, Turner TD (1995) Vet Rec 136:362

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  135. Cockbill SM (1998) Veterinary Dermatology 1998:87

    Google Scholar 

  136. Swaim SF (1997) Veterinary Dermatology 1997:249

    Google Scholar 

  137. Turner TD (1979) Pharm J 31:222

    Google Scholar 

  138. Lippert H, Piatek S (1996) In: Sedlarik KM (ed) Wundheilung und Wundauflagen,1. Int. Hartmann-Wundkongress, WVG, Stuttgart, p 50

    Google Scholar 

  139. Anonymous (2001) Am Assoc Equine Pract 35:107

    Google Scholar 

  140. Swaim SF, Wilhalf D (1985) Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 7:146

    Google Scholar 

  141. Chvapil M, Chvapil TA, Owen JA (1987) J Trauma 27:278

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  142. Seaman S (2002) J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92:24

    Google Scholar 

  143. Dlouhy U, Frank C (2002) Kleintiermedizin 2:53

    Google Scholar 

  144. Lee AH, Swaim SF, McGuire JA, Hughes KS (1987) J Am Vet Med Assoc 190:416

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  145. Madison JB, Hamir AN, Ehrlich HP, Haberman J, Topkis V, Villasin JV (1991) Am J Vet Res 52:1128

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  146. Madison JB, Gronwall RR (1992) Am J Vet Res 53:1575

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  147. Ramsey DT, Pope ER, Wagner-Mann C, Berg JN, Swaim SF (1995) Am J Vet Res 56:941

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  148. Wilmink JM, Stolk PW, Van Weeren PR, Barnefeld A (1999) Equine Vet J 31:53

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  149. Wilmink JM, Van Weeren PR, Stolk PW, Van Mil FN, Barnefeld A (1999) Equine Vet J 31:61

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  150. Otten V (2005) PhD thesis Universität Gießen

    Google Scholar 

  151. Litzke LF, Otten V, Ezer J, Schmauder HP (2005) Proc Equitana Essen, p 5

    Google Scholar 

  152. Schmauder, H-P (2005) Proceedings MEDTEC Germany, Session 102 (PowerPoint presentation)

    Google Scholar 

  153. Qin C, Li H, Xiao Q, Liu Y, Zhu J, Di Y (2006) Carbohydr Pol 63:367

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  154. Liu H, Du Y, Wang X, Sun L (2004) Int J Food Microbiol 95:147

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  155. Chen RN, Wang GM, Chen CH, Ho HO, Sheu MT (2006) Biomacromol, DOI 10.1021/bm050754b

    Google Scholar 

  156. Hornung M, Ludwig M, Schmauder HP, Wilke I, Ponomarev I (2005) DE-OS 103 61 898 A1

    Google Scholar 

  157. fzmb e.V. (2005) DE 203 21 115 U1

    Google Scholar 

  158. Frankenfeld K, Hornung M, Lindner B, Ludwig M, Mülverstedt A, Schmauder H-P (2000) DE Patent 100 22 751 C2

    Google Scholar 

  159. Voss W, Dermatest GmbH, Münster, Germany (2001) Report on the testing of moistness

    Google Scholar 

  160. Voss W, Dermatest GmbH, Münster, Germany (2004) Report on a Human Patch Test

    Google Scholar 

  161. Voss W, Dermatest GmbH, Münster, Germany (2004) Special dermatological Report on a Sensitization Test According to Magnussen (Repetitive Epicutaneous Test)

    Google Scholar 

  162. Lin KW, Lin HY (2004) J Food Sci 69: SNQ107

    Google Scholar 

  163. Zhou J, Dong M, Jiang H (2003) Shipin Gongye Keji 24:25

    Google Scholar 

  164. Evans BR, O'Neill HM, Greenbaum A (2005) 57th Southeast/61st Southwest Joint Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Memphis, TN, USA

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The financial support of the work by the Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (priority programm 1011), and the Thuringian Ministry of Science, Research, and Culture as well as of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, the Thuringian Ministry of Technology and Labour and the European Union (LEONARDO programme) is gratefully acknowledged. We thank all co-workers, cooperation partners, and students that were involved in the results described.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dieter Klemm .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2006 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Klemm, D. et al. (2006). Nanocelluloses as Innovative Polymers in Research and Application. In: Klemm, D. (eds) Polysaccharides II. Advances in Polymer Science, vol 205. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg . https://doi.org/10.1007/12_097

Download citation