Rare-Earth Metals and Aluminum Getting Close in Ziegler-Type Organometallics

Chapter

Abstract

A prolific and synergetic interplay of rare-earth metal components and organoaluminum reagents is of fundamental importance in Ziegler-type catalysts used in diene polymerization. The present article surveys organoaluminum-promoted alkylation/cationization activation pathways which have been elaborated for various lanthanide compounds, i.e., halides, carboxylates, alkoxides, aryloxides, (silyl)amides, and hydrides. Special emphasis is put on the identification of stable discrete Ln/Al heterobimetallic complexes and the interpretation of their solution and solid-state structure (LnXnAl coordination modes). Surpassing the pure model character of many structurally evidenced Ln/Al heterobimetallics their applicability and performance in the manufacture of polydienes will be highlighted and emerging structure-reactivity relationships will be addressed. Consideration is also given to various heterogenized variants involving organopolymeric and inorganic support materials.

Aluminum Diene polymerization Lanthanides Organometallics Rare-earth metals 

Abbreviations

Ar

aryl

Bu

butyl

i-Bu

isobutyl

t-Bu

tert.butyl

CN

coordination number

cot

cyclooctatetraene

d

day(s)

DIBAH

diisobutylaluminum hydride

DME

dimethoxyethane

DMSO

dimethyl sulfoxide

Do

donor

E

heteroatom (non-carbon atom)

equiv

equivalent(s)

Et

ethyl

FT IR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

h

hour(s)

Hex

hexyl

HIBAO

hexaisobutylalumoxane

IP

isoprene

L

liter(s)

Ln

rare-earth metal (i.e., Sc, Y, La–Lu)

MAO

methylaluminoxane

Me

methyl

Mes

mesityl

min

minute(s)

MMA

methyl methacrylate

MMAO

modified methylaluminoxane

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

Oct

octyl

Ph

phenyl

phen

1,10-phenanthroline

Pr

propyl

i-Pr

isopropyl

py

pyridine

rt

room temperature

SEC

size exclusion chromatography

TBP

tributylphosphate

TEA

triethylaluminum

THF

tetrahydrofuran

TMA

trimethylaluminum

TON

turn over number

VT

variable temperature

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of California at BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversitetet i BergenBergenNorway

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