Polymeric Betaines: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application

  • Sarkyt Kudaibergenov
  • Werner Jaeger
  • Andre Laschewsky
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 201)

Abstract

This review summarizes mostly the literature data accumulated during the last decade on betaine-type polyampholytes. Synthetic pathways to polybetaines consisting of radical polymerization, the Michael addition reaction, and polymer-analogous transformation are discussed together with methods of controlled polymerization, such as group transfer polymerization, atomic transfer radical polymerization, and reversible addition fragmentation transfer. The role of intra- and interchain associates resulting in insolubility in pure water due to the formation of ionically cross-linked network structures, and solubility in saline water because of the disruption of the ionic networks, are outlined. Attention is also paid to the recent advancement of hydrophobically modified polymeric betaines with emphasis on phospholipid-containing vinyl polymers. Polymer complexes of polybetaines, in particular interpolyelectrolyte, polymer–surfactant, and polymer–metal complexes, are considered in the light of the competition between intra- and intermolecular ionic contacts and the cooperative character of interactions. Stimuli-sensitive behavior and morphological changes of polybetaine hydrogels triggered by changes of the pH, ionic strength, water–organic solvent mixture, metal complexation, and DC electric field are discussed with respect to the ionization state of the macromolecules and the thermodynamic quality of solvents, as well as osmotic, chelating, and polarization effects. Some application aspects of polybetaines in medicine, biotechnology, hydrometallurgy, and the oil industry are also discussed.

Application Complexes Polymeric betaines Solutions and gels Zwitterions 

Abbreviations

AMBNa

Sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate

AMPDAPS

3-[(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate

APDAPS

3-[N-(3-Acrylamido)propyl-N,N′-dimethylammonio]-propanesulfonate

APDMAE

2-(3-Acrylamidopropyldimethylammonio)-ethanoate

APE

Anionic polyelectrolyte

ATRP

Atom transfer radical polymerization

BMA

n-Butyl methacrylate

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

Chol

Cholesterol

CPE

Cationic polyelectrolyte

CRP

Controlled radical polymerization

CTA

Chain transfer agent

DADMAC

N,N-Diallyl-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride

DC

Direct current

DEAEM

2-(Diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate

DIPAEM

2-(Diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate

DLS

Dynamic light scattering

DMAAPS

N,N-Dimethyl(acrylamidopropyl)ammonium propanesulfonate

DMAEM

N,N-Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate

DMAPS

N,N-Dimethyl-N-(2-methacryloyloxyethyl)ammonium propanesulfonate

DMF

Dimethylformamide

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

EDMA

Ethylene dimethacrylate

EDTA

N,N-Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

GPC

Gel-permeation chromatography

GTP

Group transfer polymerization

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

IEP

Isoelectric point

IPC

Interpolyelectrolyte complexes

LB

Langmuir–Blodgett

LCST

Lower critical solution temperature

MAA

Methacrylic acid

MEMA

2-(N-Morpholino)ethyl methacrylate

MPC

2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine

NaPSS

Poly(styrenesulfonate sodium salt)

NIPAM

N-Isopropylacrylamide

PAA

Poly(acrylic acid)

PAAm

Polyacrylamide

PAESD

Poly(diallylaminoethanoate-co-sulfur dioxide)

PAMPS

Poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid)

PBA

Poly(butyl methacrylate)

PCB

Polycarbobetaine

PCEAC

Poly(carboxyethyl 3-aminocrotonate)

PCEAC-Ala

Poly(carboxyethyl 3-aminocrotonate) modified by β-alanine

PCEAC-Ea

Poly(carboxyethyl 3-aminocrotonate) modified by ethanolamine

PCEAC-Gly

Poly(carboxyethyl 3-aminocrotonate) modified by glycine

PCEAC-Lys

Poly(carboxyethyl 3-aminocrotonate) modified by lysine

PCECHAC

Poly(carboxyethyl 3-cyclohexylaminocrotonate)

PCEPAC

Poly(carboxyethyl 3-propylaminocrotonate)

PCMEDDAC

Poly3-[(2-carboxy-1-methylethyl)dodecylaminocrotonate]

PDADMAC

Poly(N,N-diallyl-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride)

PDI

Polydispersity index

PDMAPAA-Q

Quaternized polyN-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]acrylamide chloride

PDMAPS

Poly[3-dimethyl(methacryloyloxyethyl)ammonium propanesulfonate]

PEG

Poly(ethylene glycol)

PEI

Polyethyleneimine

PEO

Poly(ethylene oxide)

PHMG

Poly(hexamethylene guanidine)

PMAA

Poly(methacrylic acid)

PMMA

Poly(methyl methacrylate)

PNIPAM-PC

Phosphorylcholine-based poly-N-isopropylacrylamide

polyAMPS

poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid)

polyCEACPhos

Poly(carboxyethyl 3-aminocrotonate) modified by phosphatidylethanolamine

polyTRIM

Poly(trimethylpropane trimethacrylate)

PPD

Pour point depressant

PPO

Poly(propylene oxide)

PSB

Polysulfobetaine

PVA

Poly(vinyl alcohol)

PVP

Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)

RAFT

Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer

UCST

Upper critical solution temperature

VPPS

2-Vinylpyridiniopropanesulfonate

XPS

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

ZPE

Zwitterionic polyelectrolyte

a

Exponent of Mark–Kuhn–Houwink equation

A2

Second virial coefficient

α

Ionization degree

αe

Electrostatic expansion factor

Cprotein

Protein concentration

Cs

Low molecular weight salt concentration

dh

Hydrodynamic diameter

E

Voltage

EA

Activation energy

[η]

Intrinsic viscosity

ηsp/C

Reduced viscosity

Gel

Electrostatic Gibbs energy

IE

Fluorescence intensity of excimer

IM

Fluorescence intensity of monomer

ki

(i = 1, 2, 3, …) Microscopic ionization constant

Ki

(i = 1, 2, 3, …) Macroscopic ionization constant

Kt

Tautomeric constant

L

Distance

Mn

Number average molecular weight

Mw

Weight average molecular weight

μ

Ionic strength of the solution

pKa

Ionization constant of acidic group

pKb

Ionization constant of basic group

pHc

Boundary between the primary and nonassociative phases

pHiep

Isoelectric pH

pHϕ

Boundary between the primary and aggregate phases

R

Molar ratio of polyelectrolyte/polybetaine

Rg

Radius of gyration

Rh

Hydrodynamic radius

Rp

Propagation rate

t

Time

Tg

Glass transition temperature

Zpr

Protein charge

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg  2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarkyt Kudaibergenov
    • 1
  • Werner Jaeger
    • 2
  • Andre Laschewsky
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Polymer Materials and TechnologyAlmatyRepublic of Kazakhstan
  2. 2.Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Polymer ResearchPotsdam-GolmGermany

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