Block Copolymer Micelles

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 190)

Abstract

This review summarizes recent advances to date in the area of block copolymer micelles and also tries to highlight some new directions in that field. Generalities about the preparation, characterization, and dynamics of block copolymer micelles are first outlined. Selected examples of micelle formation in aqueous and organic media are shown for block copolymers with various architectures. The different types of micellar morphologies are discussed. New directions in block copolymer micellization are finally presented.

ABC triblock copolymers Block copolymers Interpolyelectrolyte complexes Micelles Nanostructures Polyelectrolytes Supramolecular chemistry 

Abbreviations

AFM

atomic force microscopy

AUC

analytical ultracentrifugation

b

grafting distance

BIC

block ionomer complex

CMC

critical micelle concentration

CMD

critical micelle density

CMT

critical micelle temperature

CWC

critical water concentration

DMF

N,N-dimethylformamide

DLS

dynamic light scattering

Dh

hydrodynamic diameter

FCS

fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

IPEC

interpolyelectrolyte complex

LCST

lower critical solubility temperature

MALS

multiangle light scattering

MW

molecular weight

N

degree of polymerization

NA

degree of polymerization of core-forming block

NB

degree of polymerization of corona-forming block

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

PAA

poly(acrylic acid)

PaspA

Poly(aspartic acid)

PB

polybutadiene

PBAEMA

poly(tert-butylaminoethyl methacrylate)

PBLG

poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate)

PBO

poly(butylene oxide)

PDEAEMA

poly(N,N-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate)

PDMAEMA

poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)

PDMAI

poly(N,N-dimethylaminoisoprene)

PDPAEMA

poly(N,N-diisopropylaminoethyl methacrylate)

PCEMA

poly(cinnamoylethyl methacrylate)

PCL

poly(ε-caprolactone)

PDMS

poly(dimethylsiloxane)

PEB

poly(ethylene-co-butylene)

PEI

poly(ethylene imine)

PEG

poly(ethylene glycol)

PEHA

poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate)

PEHMA

poly(2-ethylhexyl methacrylate)

PEO

poly(ethylene oxide)

PEOVE

poly(2-ethoxyethyl vinyl ether)

PFS

poly(ferrocenylsilane)

PGANa

poly(sodium L-glutamate)

PHIC

poly(hexyl isocyanate)

PI

poly(isoprene)

PIB

poly(isobutylene)

PIC

poly(isocyanodipeptide)

PLL

poly(L-lysine)

PMAA

poly(methacrylic acid)

PMANa

poly(sodium methacrylate)

PMACs

poly(cesium methacrylate)

PMEMA

poly(2-(N-morpholinoethyl) methacrylate)

PMMA

poly(methylmethacrylate)

PMOVE

poly(2-methoxyethyl vinyl ether)

PMOXA

poly(methyl oxazoline)

PMPS

poly(methylphenylsilane)

PMTGEVE

poly(methyl tri(ethyleneglycol) vinyl ether)

PMVE

poly(methyl vinyl ether)

PNIPAAM

poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)

PPO

poly(propylene oxide)

PPQ

poly(phenylquinoline)

PS

polystyrene

PSCNa

poly(sodium 4-styrene carboxylate)

PSMA

poly(stearylmethacrylate)

PSOH

poly(styrene-co-[p-(2,2,2- trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1-trifluoromethyl)ethylmethylstyrene])

PSS

poly(styrene sulfonate)

PTAN

poly(1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorooctyl acrylate)

PtBA

poly(tert-butylacrylate)

PtBMA

poly(tert-butyl methacrylate)

PtBS

poly(tert-butylstyrene)

PVA

poly(vinyl alcohol)

PVAC

poly(vinylacetate)

P2VP

poly(2-vinylpyridine)

P2VPQ

poly(2-vinylpyridine) quaternized

P4VP

poly(4-vinylpyridine)

Rc

micellar core radius

Rg

radius of gyration

Rh

hydrodynamic radius

Rm

total micellar radius

SANS

small-angle neutron scattering

SAXS

small-angle X-ray scattering

SEC

size-exclusion chromatography

SEM

scanning electron microscopy

scCO2

supercritical CO2

SLS

static light scattering

TEM

transmission electron microscopy

Tg

glass transition temperature

THF

tetrahydrofuran

UCST

upper critical solubility temperature

Z

aggregation number

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bates FM, Fredrickson GH (1990) Annu Rev Phys Chem 41:525 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hamley IW (ed) (1998) The physics of block copolymers. Oxford Science Publications, Oxford Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kataoka K, Harada A, Nagasaki Y (2001) Adv Drug Deliv Rev 47:113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Price C (1982) Colloidal properties of block copolymers. In: Goodman I (ed) Developments in block copolymers. Applied Science, London Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Piirma I (ed) (1992) Polymeric surfactants. In: Surfactant science series, vol 42. Marcel Dekker, New York Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tuzar Z, Kratochvil P (1993) Micelles of block and graft copolymers in solution. In: Matijevic E (ed) Surface and colloid science, vol 15. Plenum, New York Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Riess G, Hurtrez G, Bahadur P (1985) Block copolymers, 2nd edn. In: Encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering, vol 2. Wiley, New York Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Riess G, Dumas PH, Hurtrez G (2002) Block copolymer micelles and assemblies, MML series 5. Citus, London Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Webber SE, Munk P, Tuzar Z (eds) (1996) Solvents and self-organization of polymers. NATO ASI series, series E: Applied sciences, vol 327. Kluwer, Dordrecht Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alexandridis P, Hatton TA (1996) Block copolymers. In: Salamone JC (ed) Polymer materials encyclopedia. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nace VM (ed) (1996) Nonionic surfactants: polyoxyalkylene block copolymers. In: Surfactant science series, vol 60. Marcel Dekker, New York Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alexandridis P, Lindman B (eds) (2000) Amphiphilic block copolymers: self assembly and applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xie HQ, Xie D (1999) Prog Polym Sci 24:275 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Riess G (2003) Prog Polym Sci 28:1107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Förster S, Abetz V, Müller AHE (2004) Adv Polym Sci 166:173 Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Elias HG (1973) J Macromol Sci Chem 7:601 Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tsunashima Y, Hirata M, Kawamata Y (1990) Macromolecules 23:1089 Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alexandridis P, Holzwarth JF, Hatton TA (1994) Macromolecules 27:2414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chu B, Zhou Z (1996) Physical chemistry of polyoxyalkylene block copolymer surfactants. In: Nace VN (ed) Nonionic surfactants: polyoxyalkylene block copolymers, vol 60. Marcel Dekker, New York Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wanka G, Hofmann H, Ulbricht W (1994) Macromolecules 27:4145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Booth C, Yu GE, Nace VM (1997) Block copolymers of ethylene oxide and 1,2-butylene oxide. In: Alexandridis P, Lindman B (eds) Amphiphilic block copolymers: self-asssembly and applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang YW, Yang Z, Zhou ZK, Atwood D, Booth C (1996) Macromolecules 29:670 Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhou Z, Chu B, Nace VM (1996) Langmuir 12:5016 Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhou Z, Chu B, Nace VM, Yang YW, Booth C (1996) Macromolecules 29:3663 Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhou Z, Yang YW, Booth C, Chu B (1996) Macromolecules 29:8357 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yun J, Faust R, Szilagyi LS, Keki S, Zsuga M (2003) Macromolecules 36:1717 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pispas S, Hadjichristidis N, Potemkin I, Khokhlov A (2000) Macromolecules 33:1741 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhang L, Eisenberg A (1996) J Am Chem Soc 118:3168 Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhou Z, Chu B (1987) Macromolecules 20:3089 Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhou Z, Chu B (1988) Macromolecules 21:2548 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reddy NK, Fordham PJ, Attwood D, Booth C (1990) J Chem Soc, Faraday Trans 86:1569 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Munk P (1996) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium polymer micelles. In: Webber SE, Munk P, Tuzar Z (eds) NATO ASI series, series E: Applied sciences, vol 327. Kluwer, Dordrecht Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Erhardt R, Böker A, Zettl H, Kaya H, Pyckhout-Hintzen W, Krausch G, Abetz V, Müller AHE (2001) Macromolecules 34:1069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Guo A, Liu G, Tao J (1996) Macromolecules 29:2487 Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cameron NS, Corbierre MK, Eisenberg A (1999) Can J Chem 77:1311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhang L, Eisenberg A (1995) Science 268:1728 Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhang L, Shen H, Eisenberg A (1997) Macromolecules 30:1001 Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yu Y, Zhang L, Eisenberg A (1998) Macromolecules 31:1144 Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stepanek P (1972) In: Brown W (ed) Dynamic light scattering. Oxford University Press, Oxford Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Israelachvili JN (ed) (1985) Intermolecular and surface forces. Academic, London Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tuzar Z (1996) Overview of polymer micelles. In: Webber SE, Munk P, Tuzar Z (eds) NATO ASI series, series E: Applied sciences, vol 327. Kluwer, Dordrecht Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Munk P (1996) Classical methods for the study of block copolymer micelles. In: Webber SE, Munk P, Tuzar Z (eds) NATO ASI series, series E: Applied sciences, vol 327. Kluwer, Dordrecht Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Webber SE (1996) Use of fluorescence methods to characterize the interior of polymer micelles. In: Webber SE, Munk P, Tuzar Z (eds) NATO ASI series, series E: Applied sciences, vol 327. Kluwer, Dordrecht Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mortensen K (2000) Small angle scattering studies of block copolymer micelles, micellar mesophases and networks. In: Alexandridis P, Lindman B (eds) Amphiphilic block copolymers: self assembly and applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zana R (2000) Fluorescence studies of amphiphilic block copolymers in solution. In: Alexandridis P, Lindman B (eds) Amphiphilic block copolymers: self assembly and applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gohy JF, Willet N, Varshney SK, Zhang J-X, Jérôme R (2002) e-Polymers 35 Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gohy JF, Willet N, Varshney S, Zhang J-X, Jérôme R (2001) Angew Chem Int Ed 40:3214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gohy JF, Lohmeijer BGG, Décamps B, Leroy E, Boileau S, Van Den Broek JA, Schubert D, Haase W, Schubert US (2003) Polym Int 52:1611 Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Esselink FJ, Dormidontova E, Hadziioannou G (1998) Macromolecules 31:2925 Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lam YM, Grigorieff N, Goldbeck-Wood G (1999) Phys Chem Chem Phys 1:3331 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Goldraich M, Talmon Y (2000) Direct-imaging cryo-transmission electron microscopy in the study of colloids and polymer solutions. In: Alexandridis P, Lindman B (eds) Amphiphilic block copolymers: self assembly and applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mortensen K, Talmon Y, Gao B, Kops J (1997) Macromolecules 30:6764 Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Förster S, Hermsdorf N, Böttcher C, Lindner P (2002) Macromolecules 35:4096 Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Regev O, Gohy JF, Lohmeijer BGG, Varshney SK, Hubert DHW, Schubert US (2004) Colloid Polym Sci 282:407 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Erhardt R, Zhang M, Böker A, Zettl H, Abetz C, Frederik P, Krausch G, Abetz V, Müller AHE (2003) J Am Chem Soc 125:3260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Connell SD, Collins S, Fundin J, Yang Z, Hamley IW (2003) Langmuir 19:10449 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hamley IW, Connell SD, Collins S (2004) Macromolecules 37:5337 Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Selb J, Gallot Y (1981) Macromol Chem 182:1513 Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vogel V, Gohy JF, Lohmeijer BGG, Van Den Broek JA, Haase W, Schubert US, Schubert D (2003) J Polym Sci A 41:3159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mayer G, Vogel V, Lohmeijer BGG, Gohy JF, van den Broek JA, Haase W, Schubert US, Schubert D (2004) J Polym Sci A 42:4458 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Booth C, Naylor TD, Price C, Rajab NS, Stubbersfield RB (1978) J Chem Soc Faraday Trans I 74:2352 Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Teo HH, Styring MG, Yeates SG, Price C, Booth C (1986) J Coll Interf Sci 114:416 Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bednar B, Edwards K, Almgren M, Tormod S, Tuzar S (1988) Macromol Chem Rapid Commun 9:785 Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Creutz S, Jérôme R (1999) Langmuir 15:7145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Creutz S, Jérôme R (2001) e-Polymers 14 Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Creutz S, van Stam J, Antoun S, De Schryver FC, Jérôme R (1997) Macromolecules 30:4078 Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Creutz S, van Stam J, De Schryver FC, Jérôme R (1998) Macromolecules 31:681 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    van Stam J, Creutz S, de Schryver FC, Jérôme R (2000) Macromolecules 33:6388 Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Riess G, Hurtrez G (1996) Block copolymers: synthesis, colloidal properties and application possibilities of micellar systems. In: Webber SE, Munk P, Tuzar Z (eds) NATO ASI series, series E: Applied sciences, vol 327. Kluwer, Dordrecht Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Holappa S, Kantonen L, Winnik FM, Tenhu H (2004) Macromolecules 37:7008 Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Won YY, Davis HT, Bates FS (2003) Macromolecules 36:953 Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Stepanek M, Prochazka K (2000) Langmuir 16:2502 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Prochazka K, Limpouchova Z, Webber SE (1996) Block copolymer micelles: 2. Fluorimetric studies and computer modeling. In: Salamone JC (ed) Polymer materials encyclopedia, vol 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Farago BJ, Monkenbusch M, Richter D, Huang JS, Fetters LJ, Gast AP (1993) Phys Rev Lett 71:1015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Castelletto V, Hamley IW, Yang Z, Haeussler W (2003) J Chem Phys 119:8158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Spevacek J (1982) Macromol Chem Rapid Commun 3:697 Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Liu S, Billingham NC, Armes SP (2001) Angew Chem Int Ed 40:2328 Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gao Z, Zhong XF, Eisenberg A (1994) Macromolecules 27:794 Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Prochazka K, Baloch MK (1979) Macromol Chem 180:2521 Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tuzar Z, Bednar B, Konak C, Kubin M, Svobodova S, Prochazka K (1982) Macromol Chem 183:399 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wilson DJ, Riess G (1988) Eur Polym J 24:617 Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ding J, Liu G (1998) Chem Mater 10:537 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wooley KL (2000) J Polym Sci A 38:1397 Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zhang Q, Remsen EE, Wooley KL (2000) J Am Chem Soc 122:3642 Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bütün V, Billingham NC, Armes SP (1999) ACS Polym Prepr Div Polym Chem 40:236 Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Liu T, Liu LZ, Chu B (2000) Formation of amphiphilic block copolymer micelles in nonaqueous solution. In: Alexandridis P, Lindman B (eds) Amphiphilic block copolymers: self-assembly and applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pitsikalis M, Siakali-Kioulafa E, Hadjichristidis N (2000) Macromolecules 33:5460 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Quintana JR, Salazar RA, Katime I (1995) Macromol Chem Phys 196:1625 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Quintana JR, Janez MD, Katime I (1995) Macromol Rapid Commun 16:607 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    McClain JB, Betts DE, Canelas DA, Samulski ET, DeSimone JM, Londono JD, Cochran HD, Wignall GD, Chillura-Martino D, Triolo R (1996) Science 274:2049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Raudino A, Lo Celso F, Triolo A, Triolo R (2004) J Chem Phys 120:3489 Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Samii AA, Lindman B, Karlstrom G (1990) Prog Colloid Polym Sci 82:280 Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Samii AA, Karlstrom G, Lindman B (1991) Langmuir 7:1067 Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Alexandridis P, Yang L (2000) Macromolecules 33:3382 Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gervais M, Gallot B (1977) Macromol Chem 178:2071 Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gast AP, Vinson PK, Cogan-Farinas KA (1993) Macromolecules 26:1774 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lin EK, Gast AP (1996) Macromolecules 29:4432 Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vagberg LJM, Cogan KA, Gast AP (1991) Macromolecules 24:1670 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wu G, Chu B (1994) Macromolecules 27:1766 Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Guo C, Liu HZ, Chen JY (2000) Colloids Surf A 175:193 Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kovacs AJ, Manson JA (1966) Kolloid Z Z Polym 214:1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Spatz JP, Roescher A, Möller M (1996) Adv Mater 8:337 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Bronstein LM, Chernyshov DM, Timofeeva GI, Dubrovina LV, Valetsky PM, Obolonkova ES, Khokhlov AR (2000) Langmuir 16:3626 Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Moffitt M, Zhang L, Khougaz K, Eisenberg A (1996) Micellization of ionic block copolymers in three dimensions. In: Webber SE, Munk P, Tuzar Z (eds) NATO ASI series, series E: Applied sciences, vol 327. Kluwer, Dordrecht Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zhang L, Khougaz K, Moffitt M, Eisenberg A (2000) Self assembly of block polyelectrolytes. In: Alexandridis P, Lindman B (eds) Amphiphilic block copolymers: self-assembly and applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Förster S, Zisenis M, Wenz E, Antonietti M (1996) J Chem Phys 104:9956 Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Förster S, Antonietti M (1998) Adv Mater 10:195 Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Klingelhofer S, Heitz W, Greiner A, Oestreich S, Förster S, Antonietti M (1997) J Am Chem Soc 119:10116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Spatz JP, Röscher A, Sheiko S, Krausch G, Möller M (1995) Adv Mater 7:73 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Spatz JP, Sheiko S, Möller M (1996) Macromolecules 29:3220 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Roescher A, Möller M (1995) Adv Mater 7:151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Antonietti M, Wenz E, Bronstein LM, Seregina MS (1995) Adv Mater 7:1000 Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sulman E, Bodrova Y, Matveeva V, Semagina N, Cerveny L, Kurtc V, Bronstein L, Platonova O, Valetsky P (1999) Appl Catal A 176:75 Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Spatz JP, Mössmer S, Möller M (1996) Angew Chem Int Ed 35:1510 Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mössmer S, Spatz JP, Möller M, Aberle T, Schmidt J, Burchard W (2000) Macromolecules 33:4791 Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kiriy A, Gorodyska G, Minko S, Stamm M, Tsitsilianis C (2003) Macromolecules 36:8704 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Almgren M, Brown W, Hvidt S (1995) Colloid Polym Sci 273:2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Booth C, Attwood D (2000) Macromol Rapid Commun 21:501 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wanka G, Hoffmann H, Ulbricht W (1990) Colloid Polym Sci 268:101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Mortensen K, Pedersen JS (1993) Macromolecules 26:805 Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Jain NJ, Aswal VK, Goyal PS, Bahadur P (2000) Colloids Surf A 173:85 Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Guo C, Wang J, Liu HZ, Chen JY (1999) Langmuir 15:2703 Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Chaibundit C, Mai SM, Heatley F, Booth C (2000) Langmuir 16:9645 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Riess G, Rogez D (1982) ACS Polym Prepr (Div Polym Chem) 23:19 Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Jada A, Hurtrez G, Siffert B, Riess G (1996) Macromol Chem Phys 197:3697 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hurtrez G, Dumas Ph, Riess G (1998) Polym Bull 40:203 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Khan TN, Mobbs RH, Price C, Quintana JR, Stubbersfield RB (1987) Eur Polym J 23:191 Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Xu R, Winnik MA, Riess G, Chu B, Croucher MD (1992) Macromolecules 25:644 Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Mortensen K, Brown W, Almdal K, Alami E, Jada A (1997) Langmuir 13:3635 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Bronstein LM, Chernyshov DM, Timofeeva GI, Dubrovina LV, Valetsky PM, Khokhlov AR (1999) Langmuir 15:6195 Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gohy JF, Lohmeijer BGG, Varshney SK, Schubert US (2002) Macromolecules 35:7427 Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Gohy JF, Lohmeijer BGG, Schubert US (2004) ACS Polym Prepr Div Polym Chem 45:395 Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Polik WF, Burchard W (1983) Macromolecules 16:978 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Yu K, Eisenberg A (1996) Macromolecules 29:6359 Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Rolland A, O'Mullane JE, Goddard P, Brookman L, Petrak K (1992) J Appl Polym Sci 44:1195 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Cammas S, Kataoka K (1995) Macromol Chem Phys 196:1899 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Jarrett P, Lalor CB, Chan L, Redmon MP, Hickey AJ (2000) Colloids Surf B 17:11 Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Luo L, Tam D, Maysinger D, Eisenberg A (2002) Bioconjug Chem 13:1259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Savic R, Luo L, Eisenberg A, Maysinger D (2003) Science 300:615 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Nuopponen M, Ojala J, Tenhu H (2004) Polymer 45:3643 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Verdonck B, Goethals EJ, Du Prez FE (2003) Macromol Chem Phys 204:2090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Selb J, Gallot Y (1985) In: Goodman I (ed) Developments in block copolymers, 2nd Edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Selb J, Gallot Y (1980) Macromol Chem 181:809 Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Astafieva I, Zhong XF, Eisenberg A (1993) Macromolecules 26:7339 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Astafieva I, Khougaz K, Zhong XF, Eisenberg A (1995) Macromolecules 28:7127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Zhang LF, Barlow RJ, Eisenberg A (1995) Macromolecules 28:6055 Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Khougaz K, Astafieva I, Zhong XF, Eisenberg A (1995) Macromolecules 28:7135 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Tuzar Z (1996) Copolymer micelles in aqueous media. In: Webber SE, Munk P, Tuzar Z (eds) NATO ASI series, series E: Applied sciences, vol 327. Kluwer, Dordrecht Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Zhang L, Eisenberg A (1996) Science 272:1777 Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Zhang L, Eisenberg A (1996) Macromolecules 29:8805 Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Eisenberg A (2000) ACS Polym Prepr (Div Polym Chem) 41:1515 Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Guenoun P, Davis HT, Tirrell M, Mays JW (1996) Macromolecules 29:3965 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Guenoun P, Muller F, Delsanti M, Auvray L, Chen YJ, Mays JW, Tirrell M (1998) Phys Rev Lett 81:3872 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Förster S, Hermsdorf N, Böttcher C, Lindner P (2002) Macromolecules 35:4096 Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Förster S, Hermsdorf N, Leube W, Schnablegger H, Regenbrecht M, Akari S, Lindner P, Böttcher C (1999) J Phys Chem B 103:6652 Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Gohy JF, Antoun S, Jérôme R (2001) Polymer 42:8637 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Raviv U, Giasson S, Kampf N, Gohy JF, Jérôme R, Klein J (2003) Nature 425:163 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Vamvakaki M, Billingham NC, Armes SP (1998) Polymer 39:2331 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Bütün V, Vamvakaki M, Billingham NC, Armes SP (2000) Polymer 41:3173 Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Liu S, Armes SP (2001) Curr Opin Colloid Interf Sci 6:249 Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Unali GF, Armes SP, Billingham NC, Tuzar Z, Hamley IW (1999) ACS Polym Prepr (Div Polym Chem) 40:259 Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Wendler U, Bohrisch J, Jaeger W, Rother G, Dautzenberg H (1998) Macromol Rapid Commun 19:185 Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Leyh B, Creutz S, Gaspard JP, Bourgaux C, Jérôme R (1998) Macromolecules 31:9258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Cölfen H (2001) Macromol Rapid Commun 22:219 Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Martin TJ, Prochazka K, Munk P, Webber SE (1996) Macromolecules 29:6071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Gohy JF, Mores S, Varshney SK, Zhang JX, Jérôme R (2002) e-polymers 21 Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Bronstein LM, Sidorov SN, Valetsky PM, Hartmann J, Cölfen H, Antonietti M (1999) Langmuir 15:6256 Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Sidorov SN, Bronstein LM, Kabachii YA, Valetsky PM, Soo PL, Maysinger D, Eisenberg A (2004) Langmuir 20:3543 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Mathur AM, Drescher B, Scranton AB, Klier J (1998) Nature 392:367 Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Gohy JF, Varshney SK, Jérôme R (2001) Macromolecules 34:3361 Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Holappa S, Karesoja M, Shan J, Tenhu H (2002) Macromolecules 35:4733 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Dou H, Jiang M, Peng H, Chen D, Hong Y (2003) Angew Chem Int Ed 42:1516 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Kamachi M, Kurihara M, Stille JK (1972) Macromolecules 5:161 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Gohy JF, Creutz S, Garcia M, Mahltig B, Stamm M, Jérôme R (2000) Macromolecules 33:6378 Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Golub T, de Keizer A, Cohen-Stuart MA (2000) Macromolecules 33:767 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Lowe AB, Billingham NC, Armes SP (1997) Chem Commun 1035 Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Mahltig B, Gohy JF, Jérôme R, Bellmann C, Stamm M (2000) Colloid Polym Sci 278:502 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Mahltig B, Gohy JF, Jérôme R, Stamm M (2001) J Polym Sci B 39:709 Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Mahltig B, Müller-Bushbaum P, Wolkenhauer M, Wunnicke O, Wiegand S, Gohy JF, Jérôme R, Stamm M (2001) J Coll Interf Sci 242:36 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Mahltig B, Gohy JF, Jérôme R, Buchhammer HM, Stamm M (2002) J Polym Sci part B 40:338 Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Varoqui R, Tran Q, Pefferkorn E (1979) Macromolecules 12:831 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Bekturov EA, Kudaibergenov SE, Khamzamulina RE, Frolova VA, Nurgalieva DE, Schulz RC, Zöller J (1992) Macromol Chem Rapid Commun 13:225 Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Bekturov EA, Kudaibergenov SE, Frolova VA, Khamzamulina RE, Schulz RC, Zöller J (1991) Macromol Chem Rapid Commun 12:37 Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Gabaston LI, Furlong SA, Jackson RA, Armes SP (1999) Polymer 40:4505 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Bütün V, Billingham NC, Armes SP (1997) Chem Commun 671 Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Gohy JF, Antoun S, Jérôme R (2001) Macromolecules 24:7435 Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Mahltig B, Gohy JF, Antoun S, Jérôme R, Stamm M (2002) Colloid Polym Sci 280:495 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Bütün V, Bennett CE, Vamvakaki M, Lowe AB, Billingham NC, Armes SP (1997) J Mater Chem 7:1693 Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Nishi T, Kwei K (1975) Polymer 16:285 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Aoshima S, Kobayashi E (1995) Makromol Chem Makromol Symp 95:91 Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Topp MDC, Dijkstra PJ, Talsma H, Feijen J (1997) Macromolecules 30:8518 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Forder C, Patrickios CS, Billingham NC, Armes SP (1996) Chem Commun 883 Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Forder C, Patrickios CS, Armes SP, Billingham NC (1996) Macromolecules 29:8160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Arotçarena M, Heise B, Ishaya S, Laschewsky A (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:3787 Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Gast AP (1996) Structure and interaction in tethered chains. In: Webber SE, Munk P, Tuzar Z (eds) NATO ASI series, series E: Applied sciences, vol 327. Kluwer, Dordrecht Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Linse P (2000) Modelling of self-assembly of block copolymers in selective solvent. In: Alexandridis P, Lindman B (eds) Amphiphilic block copolymers: self assembly and applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Noolandi J, Hong KM (1983) Macromolecules 16:1443 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Leibler L, Orland H, Wheeler JC (1983) J Chem Phys 79:3550 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Nagarajan R, Ganesh K (1989) Macromolecules 22:4312 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Hurter PN, Scheutjens JMHM, Hatton TA (1993) Macromolecules 26:5592 Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Binder K (ed) (1995) Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations in polymer Science. Oxford University Press, New York Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Binder K, Müller M (2000) Curr Opin Colloid Interf Sci 5:315 Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Haliloglu T, Mattice WL (1996) Monte Carlo simulations of self-assembly in macromolecular systems. In: Webber SE, Munk P, Tuzar Z (eds) NATO ASI series, series E: Applied sciences, vol 327. Kluwer, Dordrecht Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Marko JF, Rabin Y (1992) Macromolecules 25:1503 Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Dan N, Tirrell M (1993) Macromolecules 26:4310 Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Shusharina NP, Nyrkova IA, Khokhlov AR (1996) Macromolecules 29:3167 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Daoud M, Cotton JP (1982) J Phys 43:531 Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Halperin A (1987) Macromolecules 20:2943 Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Zhulina EB, Birshtein TM (1986) Polym Sci USSR 27:570 Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Shelley JC, Shelley MY (2000) Curr Opin Colloid Interf Sci 5:101 Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Förster S, Plantenberg T (2002) Angew Chem Int Ed 41:688 Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Qin A, Tian M, Ramireddy C, Webber SE, Munk P, Tuzar Z (1994) Macromolecules 27:120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Ahrens H, Förster S, Helm CA (1998) Phys Rev Lett 81:4172 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Förster S, Hermsdorf N, Leube W, Schnablegger H, Regenbrecht M, Akari S, Lindner P, Böttcher C (1999) J Phys Chem B 103:6652 Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Eckert AR, Webber SE (1996) Macromolecules 29:560 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Voulgaris D, Tsitsilianis C, Grayer V, Esselink E, Hadziioannou G (1990) Polymer 40:5879 Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Borisov OV, Zhulina EB (2002) Macromolecules 35:4472 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Guenoun P, Schlachli A, Sentenac D, Mays JW, Benattar JJ (1995) Phys Rev Lett 74:3628 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Hariharan R, Biver C, Mays JW, Russell WB (1998) Macromolecules 31:7506 Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Hariharan R, Biver C, Russell WB (1998) Macromolecules 31:7514 Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Tauer K, Müller H, Rosengarten L, Riedelsberger K (1999) Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem Eng Aspects 153:75 Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Luo L, Eisenberg A (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:1012 Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Luo L, Eisenberg A (2001) Langmuir 17:6804 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Dobereiner HG, Evans E, Kraus M, Seifert U, Wortis M (1997) Phys Rev E 55:4458 Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Luo L, Eisenberg A (2002) Angew Chem Int Ed 41:1001 Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Antonietti M, Heinz S, Schmidt M, Rosenauer C (1994) Macromolecules 27:3276 Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Tao J, Stewart S, Liu G, Yang M (1997) Macromolecules 30:2738 Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Ding J, Liu G (1997) Macromolecules 30:655 Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Won YY, Davis HT, Bates FS (1999) Science 283:960 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Discher BM, Won YY, Ege DS, Lee JCM, Bates FS, Discher DE, Hammer DA (1999) Science 284:1143 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Aranda-Spinoza H, Bermudez H, Bates FS, Discher DE (2001) Phys Rev Lett 87:208301 Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Lee JCM, Santore M, Bates FS, Discher DE (2002) Macromolecules 35:323 Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Dimova R, Seifert B, Pouligny D, Forster S, Döbereiner HG (2002) Eur Phys J E 7:241 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Schillen K, Bryskhe K, Melnikova YS (1999) Macromolecules 32:6885 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Nardin C, Hirt T, Leukel J, Meier W (2000) Langmuir 16:1035 Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Grumelard J, Taubert A, Meier W (2004) Chem Commun 1462 Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Sommerdijk NAJM, Holder SJ, Hiorns RC, Jones RG, Nolte RJM (2000) Macromolecules 33:8289 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Cornelissen JJLM, Rowan AE, Nolte RJM, Sommerdijk NAJM (2001) Chem Rev 101:4039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Discher DE, Eisenberg A (2002) Science 297:967 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Lee M, Cho BK, Zin WC (2001) Chem Rev 101:3869 Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Klok HA, Lecommandoux S (2001) Adv Mater 13:1217 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Bates FS, Schulz MF, Rosedale JH, Almdal K (1992) Macromolecules 25:5547 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Chen JT, Thomas EL, Ober CK, Hwang SS (1995) Macromolecules 28:1688 Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Chen JT, Thomas EL, Ober CK, Mao GP (1996) Science 273:343 Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Jenekhe, Chen XL (1999) Science 283:372 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Chen XL, Jenekhe SA (1999) Langmuir 15:8007 Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Stupp SI, LeBonheur V, Walker K, Li LS, Huggins KE, Keser M, Amstutz A (1997) Science 276:384 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Cornelissen JJLM, Fischer M, Sommerdijk NAJM, Nolte RJM (1998) Science 280:1427 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Leclère P, Calderone A, Marsitzky D, Francke V, Geerts Y, Müllen K, Brédas JL, Lazzaronni R (2000) Adv Mater 12:1042 Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Reiter G, Hoerner P, Hurtrez G, Riess G, Sommer JU, Joanny JF (1998) J Surf Sci Technol 14:93 Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Massey JA, Power KN, Manners I, Winnik MA (1998) J Am Chem Soc 120:9533 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Djalali R, Hugenberg N, Fischer K, Schmidt M (1999) Macromol Rapid Commun 20:444 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Massey JA, Temple K, Cao L, Rharbi Y, Raez J, Winnik MA, Manners I (2000) J Am Chem Soc 122:11577 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Massey JA, Winnik MA, Manners I, Chan VZH, Ostermann JM, Enchelmaier R, Spatz JP, Möller M (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:3147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Cao L, Massey JA, Winnik MA, Manners I, Riethmüller S, Banhart F, Möller M (2003) Adv Funct Mater 13:271 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Wang XS, Winnik MA, Manners I (2002) Macromol Rapid Commun 23:210 Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Raez J, Barjonovu R, Massey JA, Winnik MA, Manners I (2000) Angew Chem Int Ed 39:3862 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Cao L, Manners I, Winnik MA (2001) Macromolecules 34:3353 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Resendes R, Massey JA, Temple K, Cao L, Power-Billard KN, Winnik MA, Manners I (2001) Chem Eur J 7:2414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Resendes R, Massey JA, Dorn H, Winnik MA, Manners I (2000) Macromolecules 33:8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Chécot F, Lecommandoux S, Gnagnou Y, Klok HA (2002) Angew Chem Int Ed 41:1340 Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Klok HA (2002) Angew Chem Int Ed 41:1509 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Crespo JS, Lecommandoux S, Borsali R, Klok HA, Soldi V (2003) Macromolecules 36:1253 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Velonia K, Rowan AE, Nolte RJM (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:4224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Breiner U, Krappe U, Abetz V, Stadler R (1997) Macromol Chem Phys 198:1051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Kriz J, Masar B, Plestil J, Tuzar Z, Pospisil H, Doskocilova D (1998) Macromolecules 31:41 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Ishizone T, Sugiyama K, Sakano Y, Mori H, Hirao A, Nakahama S (1999) Polymer J 31:983 Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Prochazka K, Martin TJ, Webber SE, Munk P (1996) Macromolecules 29:6526 Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Tsitsilianis C, Voulgaris D, Stepanek M, Podhajecka K, Prochazka K, Tuzar Z, Brown W (2000) Langmuir 16:6868 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Yu G, Eisenberg A (1998) Macromolecules 31:5546 Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Lei L, Gohy JF, Willet N, Zhang JX, Varshney S, Jérôme R (2004) Macromolecules 37:1089 Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Lei L, Gohy JF, Willet N, Zhang JX, Varshney S, Jérôme R (2004) Polymer 45:4375 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Stepanek M, Humpolickova J, Prochakza K, Hof M, Tuzar Z, Spirkova M, Wolff T (2003) Collect Czech Chem Commun 68:121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Khanal A, Li Y, Takisawa N, Kawasaki N, Oishi Y, Nakashima K (2004) Langmuir 20:4809 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Liu S, Weaver JVM, Tang Y, Billingham NC, Armes SP, Tribe K (2002) Macromolecules 35:6121 Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Giebeler E, Stadler R (1997) Macromol Chem Phys 198:3815 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Patrickios CS, Forder C, Armes SP, Billingham NC (1997) J Polym Sci Part A 35:1181 Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Ma Q, Wooley KL (2000) J Polym Sci A 38:4805 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Pochan DJ, Chen Z, Cui H, Hales K, Qi K, Wooley KL (2004) Science 306:94 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Liu G, Stewart S (1999) Polym Mater Sci Eng 81:10 Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Underhill RS, Liu G (2000) Chem Mater 12:2082 Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    de Paz Banez MV, Robinson KL, Bütün V, Armes SP (2000) Polymer 42:29 Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Lambert O, Reutenauer S, Hurtrez G, Dumas P (2000) Macromolecular Symposium, Weinheim vol 161. Wiley, New York Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Li Z, Kesselman E, Talmon Y, Hillmyer MA, Lodge TP (2004) Science 306:98 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Patrickios CS, Hertler WR, Abbott NL, Hatton TA (1994) Macromolecules 27:930 Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Chen W-Y, Alexandridis P, Su C-K, Patrickios CS, Hertler WR, Hatton TA (1995) Macromolecules 28:8604 Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Patrickios CS, Lowe AB, Armes SP, Billingham NC (1998) J Polym Sci A 36:617 Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Tsitsilianis C, Sfika V (2001) Macromol Rapid Commun 22:647 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Bieringer R, Abetz V, Müller AHE (2001) Eur Phys J E Soft Matter 5:5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Goldacker T, Abetz V, Stadler R, Erukhimovich I, Leibler L (1999) Nature 398:137 Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Tew GN, Li L, Stupp SI (1998) J Am Chem Soc 120:5601 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Pralle MU, Urayama K, Tew GN, Neher D, Wegner G, Stupp SI (2000) Angew Chem Int Ed 39:1486 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Erhardt R, Böker A, Zettl H, Kaya H, Pyckhout-Hintzen W, Krausch G, Abetz V, Müller AHE (2001) Macromolecules 34:1069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Xu H, Erhardt R, Abetz V, Müller AHE, Goedel EA (2001) Langmuir 17:678 Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Saito R, Fujita A, Ichimura A, Ishizu K (2000) J Polym Sci A 38:2091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Kabanov AV, Bronich TK, Kabanov VA, Yu K, Eisenberg A (1996) Macromolecules 29:6797 Google Scholar
  297. 297.
    Gohy JF, Varshney SK, Antoun S, Jérôme R (2000) Macromolecules 33:9298 Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Gohy JF, Varshney SK, Jérôme R (2001) Macromolecules 24:2745 Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Harada A, Kataoka K (1998) Macromolecules 31:288 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Harada A, Kataoka K (1999) Langmuir 15:4208 Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    Harada A, Kataoka K (2001) J Controlled Release 2:85 Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    Harada A, Kataoka K (1999) Science 283:65 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    De Smedt SC, Demeester J, Hennink WE (2000) Pharm Res 17:113 Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    Wolfert MA, Schacht EH, Toncheva V, Ulbrich K, Nazarova O, Seymour LW (1996) Hum Gene Ther 7:2123 Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Katayose S, Kataoka K (1997) Bioconjug Chem 8:702 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Harada A, Kataoka K (1995) Macromolecules 28:5294 Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    Kataoka K, Harada A, Wakebayashi D, Nagasaki Y (1999) Macromolecules 32:6892 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Nagasaki Y, Wakebayashi D, Akiyama Y, Harada A, Kataoka K (2000) ACS Polym Prepr (Div Polym Chem) 41:1649 Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    Caputto A, Betti M, Altavilla G, Bonaccorsi A, Boarini C, Marchisio M, Butto S, Sparnacci K, Laus M, Tondelli L, Ensoli B (2002) Vaccine 20:2303 Google Scholar
  310. 310.
    Liu S, Zhu H, Zhao H, Jiang M, Wu C (2000) Langmuir 16:3712 Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Schrage S, Sigel R, Schlaad H (2003) Macromolecules 36:1417 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Gohy JF, Khousakhoun E, Willet N, Varshney SK, Jérôme R (2004) Macromol Rapid Commun 25:1536 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Ruokolainen R, Mäkinen R, Torkelli M, Mäkelä T, Serimaa R, ten Brinke G, Ikkala O (1998) Science 280:557 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Zhou S, Chu B (2000) Adv Mater 12:545 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Kabanov AV, Bronich TK, Kabanov VA, Yu K, Eisenberg A (1998) J Am Chem Soc 120:9941 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Bronich TK, Popov AM, Eisenberg A, Kabanov VA, Kabanov AV (2000) Langmuir 16:481 Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    Bronich TK, Ouyang M, Kabanov VA, Eisenberg A, Szoka FC, Kabanov AV (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:11872 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Gohy JF, Mores S, Varshney SK, Jérôme R (2003) Macromolecules 36:2579 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Peng H, Chen D, Jiang M (2003) J Phys Chem B 107:12461 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Peng H, Chen D, Jiang M (2003) Langmuir 19:10989 Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    Constable EC (1986) Adv Inorg Chem Radiochem 30:69 Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    Hogg R, Wilkins RG (1962) J Chem Soc 341:350 Google Scholar
  323. 323.
    Sullivan BP, Calvert J, Meyer TJ (1980) Inorg Chem 19:1404 Google Scholar
  324. 324.
    Lohmeijer BGG, Schubert US (2002) Angew Chem Int Ed 41:3825 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Gohy JF, Lohmeijer BGG, Schubert US (2002) Macromolecules 35:4560 Google Scholar
  326. 326.
    Gohy JF, Lohmeijer BGG, Schubert US (2002) ACS Polym Prepr (Div Polym Chem) 43:364 Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    Gohy JF, Lohmeijer BGG, Schubert US (2002) Macromol Rapid Commun 23:555 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Lohmeijer BGG, Gohy JF, Schubert US (2003) ACS Polym Prepr (Div Polym Chem) 44:585 Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Gohy JF, Lohmeijer BGG, Schubert US (2003) Chem Eur J 9:3472 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Gohy JF, Lohmeijer BGG, Varshney SK, Décamps B, Leroy E, Boileau S, Schubert US (2002) Macromolecules 35:9748 Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    Gohy JF, Lohmeijer BGG, Alexeev A, Wang XS, Manners I, Winnik MA, Schubert US (2004) Chem Eur J 10:4315 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Gohy JF, Hofmeier H, Alexeev A, Schubert US (2003) Macromol Chem Phys 204:1524 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unité de Chimie des Matériaux Inorganiques et Organiques (CMAT) and Centre de recherche sur les matériaux et les dispositifs électroniques micro- et nanoscopiques (CerMin)Université catholique de LouvainLouvain-la-NeuveBelgium

Personalised recommendations