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Solubilization of Fullerenes, Carbon Nanotubes, and Graphene

Chapter
Part of the Topics in Current Chemistry book series (TOPCURRCHEM, volume 348)

Abstract

Processing of novel carbon forms, i.e. fullerenes, nanotubes and graphene, in solution is described. C60 and higher fullerenes appear to be the only truly soluble forms of pure carbon. Ways to disperse carbon nanotubes and graphene are reviewed. True solutions of carbon nanotubes and graphene can be obtained by reductive dissolution, leading to solution of polyelectrolyte nanocarbons of high concentrations without damaging the nanocarbon. Finally it is shown that these solutions allow to obtain high performing materials such as highly conducting transparent electrodes.

Keywords

C60 Carbon Dissolution Entropy Fullerenes GIC Graphene Graphenide Graphite Individualization Nanotube salts Nanotubes Nanotubide Solutions 

Abbreviations

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

CNT

Carbon nanotube

CoMoCAT

Process in which carbon nanotubes are synthesized with Co/Mo catalysts

DMSO

Dimethylsulfoxide

GIC

Graphite intercalation compound

GO

Graphene oxide

HiPCO

High pressure carbon monoxide process to synthesize carbon nanotubes

HOPG

Highly ordered pyrolytic graphene

NMP

N-Methylpyrrolidone

PAH

Polyaromatic hydrocarbon

RGO

Reduced graphene oxide

SCE

Standard calomel electrode

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

SWCNT

Single-wall carbon nanotube

TEM

Transmission electron spectroscopy

THF

Tetrahydrofuran

Notes

Acknowledgements

Most of the experimental work described here has been performed by Dr. C. Vallés, Dr. A. Catheline, Dr D. Voiry, Dr F. Dragin, and Yu Wang, in collaboration with Dr Olivier Roubeau, Dr Carlos Drummond, the group of Prof. F. Paolucci from the University of Bologna (in particular, Dr. M. Marcaccio, Dr. M. Iurlo, Dr. G. Valenti, and Dr S. Rapino), and with Dr L. Ortolani and Dr. V. Morandi (CNR, Bologna). Prof. Eric Anglaret (Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, Montpellier), Dr. M. Monthioux (CEMES, Toulouse), and Dr. C. Furtado (CDTN, Belo Horizonte), as well as Prof. M. Pimenta, Dr. A. Righi, and Dr. C. Fantini are also gratefully acknowledged as well as all the researchers and students from the “carbon nanotubes and graphene” team at CRPP. Support from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (TRICOTRA and GRAAL Projects), Région Aquitaine (collaboration project with Emilie Romagne 2012–2014), Arkema and Linde is acknowledged. This work has been performed within the framework of the GDR-I 3217 “graphene and nanotubes.”

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CNRS, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP)Université de BordeauxPessacFrance

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