Area Based Beaconless Reliable Broadcasting in Sensor Networks
We consider the broadcasting problem in sensor networks where the nodes have no prior knowledge of their neighborhood. That is, to preserve power and bandwidth, no beacons or ’hello’ messages are sent. We describe several Area based Beaconless Broadcasting Algorithms (ABBAs). In 2D, upon receiving the packet, each node calculates the ratio P of its perimeter, along the circle of transmission radius, that is not covered by this and previous transmissions of the same packet. The node then sets or updates its timeout to be inversely proportional to P. We also consider an alternative random timeout function. If the perimeter becomes fully covered, the node cancels retransmissions. The protocol is reliable, assuming an ideal MAC layer. We also describe three 3D ABBAs, one of them being reliable, each with two choices of timeouts.These three protocols are based on covering three projections, covering particular points on intersection circles, and covering intersection points of three spheres. Our protocols are the first reliable broadcasting protocols, other than blind flooding. We compare 2D ABBAs with two other existing beaconless protocols, BPS and Geoflood, showing its superiority. We also consider a MAC layer with collisions and show that all of our methods still remain very robust, showing high delivery ratio during the broadcast.
KeywordsSensor Network Intersection Point Contention Window Transmission Area Transmission Radius
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