Adaptive Algorithms Using Bounded Memory Are Inherently Non-uniform
Distributed protocols that run in dynamic environments such as the Internet are often not able to use an upper bound on the number of potentially participating processes. In these settings adaptive and uniform algorithms are desirable where the step complexity of all operations is a function of the number of concurrently participating processes (adaptive) and the algorithm does not need to know an upper bound on the number of participating processes (uniform). Adaptive algorithms, however, are generally not adaptive with respect to their memory consumption – if no upper bound on the number of participating processes is known in advance – they require unbounded MWMR registers and an unbounded number of such registers (even if only finitely many distinct processes appear), making them impractical for real systems. In this paper we ask whether this must be the case: Can adaptive algorithms where no upper bound on the number of participating processes is known in advance be uniformly implemented with finite memory (if only finitely many distinct processes keep reappearing)? We will show that in the dynamic setting it is impossible to implement long-lived adaptive splitters, collect and renaming with infinitely many bounded MWMR registers, making such adaptive algorithms impractical in dynamic settings. On the positive side we provide algorithms that implement a long-lived uniform adaptive splitter if unbounded registers are available and that implement a non-uniform adaptive splitter with finitely many bounded registers if an upper bound on the number of participating processes is known in advance.
KeywordsShared Memory Adaptive Algorithm Busy Period Mutual Exclusion Distinct Process
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Afek, Y., Attiya, H., Fouren, A., Stupp, G., Touitou, D.: Long-Lived Renaming made adaptive. In: Proc. of 18th ACM Symp. on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pp. 91–103 (1999)Google Scholar
- 2.Afek, Y., Boxer, P., Touitou, D.: Bounds on the shared memory requirements for long-lived and adaptive objects. In: Proc. of the 19th ACM Symp. on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pp. 81–89 (2000)Google Scholar
- 3.Afek, Y., Dauber, D., Touitou, D.: Wait-free made fast. In: Proc. of the 27th Ann. ACM Symp. on Theory of Computing, pp. 538–547 (1995)Google Scholar
- 4.Afek, Y., Merritt, M.: Fast, wait-free (2k − 1)-renaming. In: Proc. of the 18th Ann. ACM Symp. on Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 105–112 (1999)Google Scholar
- 5.Afek, Y., Merritt, M., Taubenfeld, G., Touitou, D.: Disentangling multi-object operations. In: Proc. of 16th Annual ACM Symp. on Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 111–120 (1997)Google Scholar
- 6.Afek, Y., Stupp, G., Touitou, D.: Long-lived adaptive collect with applications. In: Proc. of the 40th Ann. Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science, pp. 262–272 (1999)Google Scholar
- 10.Attiya, H., Dagan, E.: Universal operations: Unary versus binary. In: Proc. 15th ACM Symp. on Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 223–232 (1996)Google Scholar
- 11.Attiya, H., Fouren, A.: Adaptive wait-free algorithms for lattice agreement and renaming. In: Proc. 17th ACM Symp. on Principles of Distr. Comp., pp. 277–286 (1998)Google Scholar
- 15.Attiya, H., Zach, I.: Fully adaptive algorithms for atomic and immediate snapshots (2003), www.cs.technion.ac.il/hagit/pubs/AZ03.pdf
- 16.Englert, B., Gafni, E.: Fast Collect in the Absence of Contention. In: Proc. 22nd IEEE Intern. Conference on Distr. Comp. Systems (ICDCS), pp. 537–543 (2002)Google Scholar
- 17.Englert, B., Goldstein, D.: Can Memory be used adaptively by Uniform Algorithms? In: Proc. 9th Intern. Conf. on Principles of Distr. Systems (OPODIS) (2005)Google Scholar