Advertisement

Failing Believably: Toward Drama Management with Autonomous Actors in Interactive Narratives

  • Mark O. Riedl
  • Andrew Stern
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4326)

Abstract

Interactive Narrative is an approach to interactive entertainment that enables the player to make decisions that directly affect the direction and/or outcome of the narrative experience being delivered by the computer system. One common interactive narrative technique is to use a drama manager to achieve a specific narrative experience. To achieve character believability, autonomous character agents can be used in conjunction with drama management. In this paper, we describe the problem of failing believably in which character believability and drama management come into conflict and character agents must intelligently produce behaviors that explain away schizophrenic behavior. We describe technologies for implementing semi-autonomous believable agents that can fail believably.

Keywords

Virtual World Autonomous Agent World State Primitive Action Character Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aylett, R.: Emergent Narrative, Social Immersion and Storification. In: Proc. of the 1st Int. Workshop on Narrative and Interactive Learning Environments (2000)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bates, J.: Virtual Reality, Art, and Entertainment. Presence: The Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 1, 133–138 (1992)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benson, S., Nilsson, N.: Reacting, Planning, and Learning in an Autonomous Agent. In: Furukawa, Michie, Muggleton (eds.) Machine Intelligence, vol. 14, Clarendon (1995)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blumberg, B., Galyean, T.: Multi-Level Control for Animated Autonomous Agents: Do the Right Thing.. Oh, not that... In: Trappl, R., Petta, P. (eds.) Creating Personalities for Synthetic Actors, Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cavazza, M., Charles, F., Meade, S.J.: Planning Characters Behaviour in Interactive Storytelling. Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation 13, 121–131 (2002)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clement, B.J., Durfee, E.H.: Top-Down Search for Coordinating the Hierarchical Plans of Multiple Agents. In: Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cox, J.S., Durfee, E.H.: Discovering and Exploiting Synergy between Hierarchical Planning Agents. In: Proc. of the 2nd Int. Joint Conf. on Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Figueiredo, R., Dias, J., Aylett, R., Paiva, A.: Shaping Emergent Narratives for a Pedagogical Application. In: Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Narrative and Interactive Learning Environments (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Firby, J.: Adaptive Execution in Complex Dynamic Domains. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University (1989)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Georgeff, M., Lansky, A.: Procedural Knowledge. Proc. of IEEE Special Issue on Knowledge Representation 74, 1383–1398 (1986)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gratch, J., Marsella, S.: Tears and Fears: Modeling Emotions and Emotional Behaviors in Synthetic Agents. In: Proc. of the 5th Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kelso, M., Weyhrauch, P., Bates, J.: Dramatic Presence. Presence: The Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 2 (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Loyall, A.B.: Believable Agents: Building Interactive Personalities. Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University (1997)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Magerko, B., Laird, J.E., Assanie, M., Kerfoot, A., Stokes, D.: AI characters and directors for intereactive computer games. In: Proc. of the 16th Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conference (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: A Behavior Language: Joint Action and Behavior Idioms. In: Prendinger, H., Ishizuka, M. (eds.) Life-like Characters: Tools, Affective Functions and Applications, Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: Structuring Content in the Façade Interactive Drama Architecture. In: Proc. of the 1st Conf. on AI and Interactive Digital Entertainment (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Riedl, M.O.: Narrative Generation: Balancing Plot and Character. Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Riedl, M.O., Saretto, C.J., Young, R.M.: Managing Interaction Between Users and Agents in a Multi-Agent Storytelling Environment. In: Proc. of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Riedl, M.O., Stern, A.: Believable Agents and Intelligent Story Adaptation for Interactive Storytelling. In: Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conf. on Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment (2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sengers, P.: Schizophrenia and Narrative in Artificial Agents. In: Mateas, M., Sengers, P. (eds.) Narrative Intelligence, John Benjamins, Amsterdam (2003)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Szilas, N.: The Future of Interactive Drama. In: Proc. of the 2nd Australasian Conf. on Interactive Entertainment (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Theune, M., Faas, S., Nijholt, A., Heylen, D.: The Virtual Storyteller: Story Creation by Intelligent Agents. In: Proc. of the 1st Int. Conf. for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    van Lent, M., Fisher, W., Mancuso, M.: An Explainable Artificial Intelligence System for Small-Unit Tactical Behavior. In: Proc. of the 16th Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conference (2004)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Weyhrauch, P.: Guiding Interactive Fiction. Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University (1997)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Young, R.M., Riedl, M.O., Branly, M., Jhala, A., Martin, R.J., Saretto, C.J.: An architecture for integrating plan-based behavior generation with interactive game environments. Journal of Game Development 1, 51–70 (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark O. Riedl
    • 1
  • Andrew Stern
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Creative TechnologiesUniversity of Southern CaliforniaMarina del ReyUSA
  2. 2.Procedural Arts LLCPortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations