Real-Time Virtual Surgery Simulation Employing MM-Model and Adaptive Spatial Hash

  • Shaoting Zhang
  • Lixu Gu
  • Weiming Liang
  • Jingsi Zhang
  • Feng Qian
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4282)


In this paper, MM-Model is presented for real-time simulation of 3D deformable objects on both global level and local region. This model consists of a deformable centerline and dynamic surface reconstruction mechanism based on Mass-Spring and Medial-Representation respectively. When a relatively small force is applied on the object the model works in the same way as the traditional Mass-Spring. Otherwise the force is directly transferred to the centerline and the surface is dynamically recreated according to the position of the centerline. This model works more effectively and efficiently than traditional elastic ones on the global level due to the advantages of the Medial-Representation reflecting the internal information and the Mass-Spring reducing the response time. A novel collision detection algorithm based on adaptive spatial hash, a cutting approach and suture method are also articulated. An artificial blood vessel’s deformation effect and surgery processes are presented in our case study.


Hybrid Model Mass Point Collision Detection Deformable Object Global Deformation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cotin, S., Delingette, H., Ayache, N.: Real-time Elastic Deformations of Soft Tissues for Surgery Simulation. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 5(1), 72–83 (1999)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Frisken, S.: Using Linked Volumes to Model Object Collisions, Deformation, Cutting, Carving, and Joining. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 5(4), 333–349 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sarah, F., Delingette, H., Ayache, N.: A Fast Algorithm for Deforming Volumetric Objects. In: 1997 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, April 1997, pp. 149–154 (1997)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhuang, Y.: Real-time and Physically Realistic Simulation of Global Deformation. In: ACM SIGGRAPH 1999 Conference, p. 270 (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pizer, S.: Multiscale Medial Loci and Their Properties. IJCV Special UNC-MIDAG issue 55(2/3), 155–179 (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen, Y., Zhu, Q., Kaufman, A.: Physically-based Animation of Volumetric Objects. In: Computer Animation (1998)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jiang, X., Gu, L.: An Automatic and Fast Centerline Extraction Algorithm for Virtual Colonoscopy. In: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Conference (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nedel, L., Thalmann, D.: Real Time Muscle Deformations Using Mass-Spring Systems. In: Proceedings of the Computer Graphics International, pp. 156–166 (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang, S., Gu, L.: Real-Time Simulation of Deformable Soft Tissue Based on Mass- Spring and Medial Representation. In: Liu, Y., Jiang, T.-Z., Zhang, C. (eds.) CVBIA 2005. LNCS, vol. 3765, pp. 419–426. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blum: Shape Description UsingWeighted Symmetric Axis Features. Pattern Recognition 10, 167–180 (1978)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huang, P., Gu, L., Zhang, S.: Real-Time Simulation for Global Deformation of Soft-Tissue Using Deformable Centerline and Medial Representation. In: Harders, M., Székely, G. (eds.) ISBMS 2006. LNCS, vol. 4072, pp. 67–74. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eitz, M.: Realtime Soft Tissue Simulation employing Constraint Based Particle Systems and Hierarchical Spatial Hashing. Master Thesis of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown, J., Sorkin, S., Stephanides, M.: Algorithmic Tools for Real-Time Microsurgery simulation. Medical Image Analysis (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaoting Zhang
    • 1
  • Lixu Gu
    • 1
  • Weiming Liang
    • 2
  • Jingsi Zhang
    • 1
  • Feng Qian
    • 2
  1. 1.School of SoftwareShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityChina
  2. 2.ACM ClassShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityChina

Personalised recommendations