Efficient Algorithms for the Optimal-Ratio Region Detection Problems in Discrete Geometry with Applications
In this paper, we study several interesting optimal-ratio region detection (ORD) problems in d-D (d ≥3) discrete geometric spaces, which arise in high dimensional medical image segmentation. Given a d-D voxel grid of n cells, two classes of geometric regions that are enclosed by a single or two coupled smooth heightfield surfaces defined on the entire grid domain are considered. The objective functions are normalized by a function of the desired regions, which avoids a bias to produce an overly large or small region resulting from data noise. The normalization functions that we employ are used in real medical image segmentation. To our best knowledge, no previous results on these problems in high dimensions are known. We develop a unified algorithmic framework based on a careful characterization of the intrinsic geometric structures and a nontrivial graph transformation scheme, yielding efficient polynomial time algorithms for solving these ORD problems. Our main ideas include the following. We show that the optimal solution to the ORD problems can be obtained via the construction of a convex hull for a set of O(n) unknown 2-D points using the hand probing technique. The probing oracles are implemented by computing a minimum s-t cut in a weighted directed graph. The ORD problems are then solved by O(n) calls to the minimum s-t cut algorithm. For the class of regions bounded by a single heighfield surface, our further investigation shows that the O(n) calls to the minimum s-t cut algorithm are on a monotone parametric flow network, which enables to detect the optimal-ratio region in the complexity of computing a single maximum flow.
KeywordsOptical Coherence Tomography Image Segmentation Directed Edge Algorithmic Framework ORDI Problem
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