Applying FRBR Model as a Conceptual Model in Development of Metadata for Digitized Thai Palm Leaf Manuscripts

  • Nisachol Chamnongsri
  • Lampang Manmart
  • Vilas Wuwongse
  • Elin K. Jacob
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4312)


This paper outlines the adaptation of IFLA’s Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) for development of a metadata scheme to represent palm leaf manuscripts (PLMs) and facilitate their retrieval in digital collections. The FRBR model uses a structured, four-level hierarchy to represent an intellectual work with multiple titles, editions or formats. Because FRBR focuses on representation of the conceptual work rather than the physical entity, it must be modified for representation of PLMs. In this modified model, the level of work applies to the physical PLM rather than its conceptual content; expression applies to the languages in which the PLM occurs; manifestation applies to the formats in which each expression is available; and item applies to individual copies of a single format. The modified model has been used to devise a metadata scheme where each level has its own set of elements.


Metadata FRBR Model Palm Leaf Manuscript Digital Collection 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    [UNECE] United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Knowledge-Based Economy (2004),
  2. 2.
    Office of National Economic & Social Development Board, One Tambon One Product (in Thai) (2002),
  3. 3.
    Office of National Economic & Social Development Board, The main point of the Ninth National Economic and Social Development Plan (in Thai) (2003),
  4. 4.
    Office of the National Education Commission, The promoting policy of Thailand’s Knowledge on education. In: The conference on management of local information. Central Library, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham (in Thai) (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Somchitsripanya, S.: Perspective from palm leaf manuscript: language and literature. In: The conference on Study of Knowledge Recorded in Palm Leaf Manuscript in Northeastern Thailand (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Khlue-Thai, P.: The studies of inscription and ancient document by Social Research Institute Chaingmai University. In: Language and Inscription, vol. 9, pp. 32–59. Department of Eastern Language, Faculty of Archeology, Sillapakhon University, Nakhon Prathom (in Thai) (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Samutkhup, S., Kittiarsa, P.: Why was a female lower garment used as a wrapper of palm-leaf manuscripts in Northeast Thailand? An anthropology approach to Isan-palm-leaf manuscripts (in Thai). Art & Culture Magazine 24(6), 82–95 (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Northeastern Thai Palm Leaf Manuscript Preservation Project, Mahasarakham University (in Thai) (2004)
  9. 9.
    Somboon-a-nake, S.: Palm leaf manuscript: cultural heritage of Lanna people. Library Association Bulletin 42(2), 25–36 (in Thai) (1998)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thalang, E.: Isan’s knowledge. Ammarin, Bangkok (in Thai) (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mimno, D., Crane, G., Jones, A.: Hierarchical Catalog Records implementing a FRBR Catalog. D-Lib Magazine 11(10) (2005),
  12. 12.
    Devis-Brown, B.: Information organization: old concepts, new challenges. In: WTEC Panel report on Digital information organization in Japan. International Technology Research Institute, World Technology (WTEC) Division (1999),
  13. 13.
    Proffitt, M.: Pulling it all together: use of METS in RLG cultural materials service. Library Hi Tech 22(1), 65–68 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Taylor, A.G.: The organization of information. Library Association, Englewood, Colorado (1999)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Coyle, K.: Future considerations: the functional library system record. Library Hi Tech 22(2), 166–174 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report. UBCIM Publications-New Series. vol. 19. K.G.Saur, Munchen (1998),
  17. 17.
    Lin, S.C., et al.: A Metadata case study for the FRBR model based on Chinese painting and calligraphy at the National Palace Museum in Taipei. In: DC-2001 Proceedings of the international conference on Dublin Core and metadata applications, pp. 51–59. NII, Tokyo (2001)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Caplan, P.: Metadata fundamentals for all librarians. American Library Association, Chicago (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chantharasakha, S.: Isan palm leaf manuscript. In: The conference on Study of Knowledge Recorded in Palm Leaf Manuscript in Northeastern Thailand (2001)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Unnatwaranggul, W.: Palm leaf manuscript. In: The Royal edition of palm leaf manuscript in Rattanakosin Era, pp. 1–11. National Library, Bangkok (in Thai) (1984)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nisachol Chamnongsri
    • 1
  • Lampang Manmart
    • 1
  • Vilas Wuwongse
    • 2
  • Elin K. Jacob
    • 3
  1. 1.Information Studies Program, Faculty of Humanities and Information ScienceKhon Kaen UniversityThailand
  2. 2.School of Engineering and TechnologyAsian Institute of TechnologyThailand
  3. 3.School of Library and Information ScienceIndiana UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations