Node Density Effects on Reactive Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

  • Hean-Loong Ong
  • Tat-Chee Wan
  • Hean-Kuan Ong
  • Sureswaran Ramadass
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4311)


The study conducted in this paper evaluates the performance of on-demand mobile ad hoc wireless network protocols under varying node densities in a large network. The focus in this study centers on the relationship between the mobility, density and connectivity of ad hoc wireless nodes. Ad hoc wireless node density is often discussed on a single group subnets of nodes. In this study a scenario is proposed to evaluate the ad hoc wireless nodes communicating between different node sub with different densities. A simulation is conducted using the two prominent on demand routing protocol for ad hoc networks namely DSR and AODV. In the simulation each protocol is given 2 different scenarios in terms of node location. The first scenario is a normal ad hoc wireless simulation scenario. The second scenario contains nodes that are partitioned into 7 areas where respective areas have their node density and connection probability. The objective of this study is to look at how on demand ad hoc wireless routing protocols react to environments with non uniform node densities and to seek and understanding for future improvement.


Node Mobility Packet Delivery Ratio Node Density Route Discovery Dynamic Source Route 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bettstetter, C.: On the Connectivity of Wireless Multihop Networks with Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Range Assignment. In: Proceedings. VTC 2002-Fall. 2002 IEEE 56th, September 24-28, vol. 3. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Royer, E., Melliar-Smith, P., Moser, L.: An Analysis of the Optimum Node Density for Ad Hoc Mobile Networks. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications, Helsinki, Finland (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bettstetter, C., Zangl, J.: How to achieve a connected ad hoc network with homogeneous range assignment: an analytical study with consideration of border effects. In: 4th International Workshop on Mobile and Wireless Communications Network, September 9-11 (2002)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nilsson, A.: Performance Analysis of Traffic Load and Node Density in Ad Hoc Networks. In: Fifth European Wireless Conference on Mobile and Wireless Systems beyond 3G, Barcelona, Spain (February 2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Broch, J., Maltz, D.A., Johnson, D.B., Hu, Y., Jetcheva, J.: A Performance Comparison of multihop wireless ad hoc networking protocols. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Networking (Mobicom 1998), March 2000, pp. 25–30 (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johnson, D., Maltz, D.: Dynamic Source Routing in ad hoc wireless networks, ch. 5, pp. 153–181. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hu, Y.-C., Johnson, D.: Caching strategies in on Demand routing protocols for wireless ad hoc networks. In: Proc. 6th ACM MobiCom, pp. 231–242 (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hu, Y.-C., Johnson, D.: Ensuring Cache Freshness in On Demand Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols. In: POMC 2002, Toulouse, France, October 30-31 (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maltz, D., Broch, J., Jetcheva, J., Johnson, D.: The effects of on-demand behaviour in routing protocols for multi-hopwireless ad hoc networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication (1999)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Perkins, C., Royer, E., Das, S.: RFC 3561 Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing,
  11. 11.
    Lee, S.-J., Royer, E., Perkins, C.E.: Int. Journal of Network Management 13(2), 97–114 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Das, S.R., Perkins, C.E., Royer, E.M.: Performance comparison of two on-demand routing protocols for ad hoc networks. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Infocom, March 2000, pp. 3–12 (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li, J.Y., Blake, C., De Couto, D.S.J., Lee, H.I., Morris, R.: Capacity of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks. In: Proceedings of the 7th ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 2001), Rome, Italy (July 2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    NS2 Network Simulator 2,
  15. 15.
    Sweet, C., Devarapalli, V., Sidhu, D.: IEEE 802.11 Performance in an Ad-Hoc Environment. Technical Report, UMBC Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering (1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jacquet, P., Muhlethaler, P., Clausen, T., Laouiti, A., Qayyum, A., Viennot, L.: Optimized Lonk State Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks. In: Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Multi Topic Conference (INMIC) (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Haas, Z.J., Pearlman, M.R., Samar, P.: The Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) for Ad Hoc Networks (IETF Internet draft work in progress),
  18. 18.
    Macker, J., Corson, S.: Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). IETF Working Group Charter (1997),
  19. 19.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hean-Loong Ong
    • 1
  • Tat-Chee Wan
    • 1
  • Hean-Kuan Ong
    • 1
  • Sureswaran Ramadass
    • 1
  1. 1.National Advanced IPv6 Center, USMPenangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations