Caching Indices for Efficient Lookup in Structured Overlay Networks

  • Vasilios Darlagiannis
  • Nicolas Liebau
  • Oliver Heckmann
  • Andreas Mauthe
  • Ralf Steinmetz
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4118)


Structured overlay networks for Peer-to-Peer systems (e.g. based on Distributed Hash Tables) use proactive mechanisms to provide efficient indexing functionality for advertised resources. The majority of their occurrences in proposed systems (e.g. Chord, Pastry) provide upper bounds (logarithmic complexity with respect to the size of the graph representing the network) on the communication cost in worst case scenarios and their performance is superior compared to unstructured alternatives. However, in particular (empirically observed) scenarios where the popularity of the advertised resources follows a distribution considerably different from the uniform distribution, structured P2P networks may perform inferiorly compared to well designed unstructured P2P networks that exploit effectively the resource popularity distribution. In order to address this issue, a very simple caching mechanism is suggested in this paper that preserves the theoretical superiority of structured overlay networks regardless of the popularity of the advertised resources. Moreover, the churn effect observed in Peer-to-Peer systems is considered. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using simulation experimesnts.


Overlay Network Cache Size Bloom Filter Cache Mechanism Cache Entry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Arlitt, M., Friedrich, R., Jin, T.: Performance evaluation of Web proxy cache replacement policies. Performance Evaluation 39(1-4), 149–164 (2000)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Balakrishnan, H., Kaashoek, M.F., Karger, D., Morris, R., Stoica, I.: Looking up Data in P2P Systems. Communications of the ACM 46(2), 43–48 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bloom, B.H.: Space/time trade-offs in hash coding with allowable errors. Communications of the ACM 13(7), 422–426 (1970)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boykin, P.O., Bridgewater, J.S.A., Roychowdhury, V.: Statistical Properties of Query Strings (preprint) (January 2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Darlagiannis, V.: Overlay Network Mechanisms for Peer-to-Peer Systems. PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany (June 2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Darlagiannis, V., Mauthe, A., Liebau, N., Steinmetz, R.: An Adaptable, Role-based Simulator for P2P Networks. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Modeling, Simulation and Visualization Methods, pp. 52–59 (June 2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Darlagiannis, V., Mauthe, A., Steinmetz, R.: Overlay Design Mechanisms for Heterogeneous, Large Scale, Dynamic P2P Systems. Journal of Networks and System Management 12(3), 371–395 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    de Bruijn, N.G.: A combinatorial problem. In: Proceedings of the Koninklije Nederlandse Academie van Wetenshapen, pp. 758–764 (1946)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gummadi, K.P., Dunn, R.J., Saroiu, S., Gribble, S.D., Levy, H.M., Zahorjan, J.: Measurement, Modeling, and Analysis of Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Workload. In: Proceedings of 19th ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (October 2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huebsch, R., Hellerstein, J.M., Lanham, N., Thau Loo, B., Shenker, S., Stoica, I.: Querying the Internet with PIER. In: Proceedings of VLDB 2003 (September 2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kubiatowicz, J., Bindel, D., Chen, Y., Czerwinski, S., Eaton, P., Geels, D., Gummadi, R., Rhea, S., Weatherspoon, H., Wells, C., Zhao, B.: OceanStore: an Architecture for Global-scale Persistent Storage. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, pp. 190–201. ACM Press, New York (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu, Y., Xiao, L., Ni, L.M.: Building a Scalable Bipartite P2P Overlay Network. In: Proceedings of the 18th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (April 2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Loguinov, D., Kumar, A., Rai, V., Ganesh, S.: Graph-Theoretic Analysis of Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems: Routing Distances and Fault Resilience. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2003, August 2003, pp. 395–406 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thau Loo, B., Huebsch, R., Stoica, I., Hellerstein, J.M.: The Case for a Hybrid P2P Search Infrastructure. In: Voelker, G.M., Shenker, S. (eds.) IPTPS 2004. LNCS, vol. 3279, pp. 141–150. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Keong Lua, E., Crowcroft, J., Pias, M., Sharma, R., Lim, S.: A Survey and Comparison of Peer-to-Peer Overlay Network Schemes. IEEE Communications Survey and Tutorial (March 2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lv, Q., Ratnasamy, S., Shenker, S.: Can Heterogeneity Make Gnutella Scalable? In: Druschel, P., Kaashoek, M.F., Rowstron, A. (eds.) IPTPS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2429, p. 94. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Markatos, E.P.: Tracing a large-scale Peer-to-Peer System: an hour in the life of Gnutella. In: Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster Computing and Grid, May 2002, pp. 65–74 (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maymounkov, P., Maziéres, D.: Kademlia: A Peer-to-peer Information System Based on the XOR metric. In: Druschel, P., Kaashoek, M.F., Rowstron, A. (eds.) IPTPS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2429, p. 53. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    O’Neil, E., O’Neil, P., Weikum, G.: The LRU-K Page Replacement Algorithm For Database Disk Buffering. In: Proceedings of the 1993 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of data, pp. 297–306 (1993)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Portmann, M., Sookavatana, P., Ardon, S., Seneviratne, A.: The cost of peer discovery and searching in the Gnutella peer-to-peer file sharing protocol. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Networks, pp. 263–268 (2001)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ratnasamy, S., Francis, P., Handley, M., Karp, R., Schenker, S.: A scalable Content Addressable Network. In: Proceedings of the 2001 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, pp. 161–172. ACM Press, New York (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rhea, S., Kubiatowicz, J.: Probabilistic location and routing. In: Proceedings of the 21st Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (June 2002)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Robinson, J., Devarakonda, M.: Data cache management using frequency based replacement. In: Proceedings of the 1990 ACM SIGMETRICS conference on Measurement and modeling of computer systems, pp. 134–142 (1990)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rowstron, A., Druschel, P.: Pastry: Scalable, distributed object location and routing for large-scale peer-to-peer systems. In: Guerraoui, R. (ed.) Middleware 2001. LNCS, vol. 2218, pp. 329–350. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rowstron, A.I.T., Druschel, P.: Storage management and caching in PAST, a large-scale, persistent peer-to-peer storage utility. In: Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, pp. 188–201 (2001)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Saroiu, S., Gummadi, P.K., Gribble, S.D.: A Measurement Study of Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Systems. In: Proceedings of Multimedia Computing and Networking 2002 (MMCN 2002) (2002)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stoica, I., Morris, R., Liben-Nowell, D., Karger, D., Kaashoek, M.F., Dabek, F., Balakrishnan, H.: Chord: A scalable Peer-to-Peer Lookup Service for Internet Applications. IEEE Transactions on Networking 11(1), 17–32 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Traversat, B., Arora, A., Abdelaziz, M., Duigou, M., Haywood, C., Hugly, J.-C., Pouyoul, E., Yeager, B.: Project JXTA 2.0 Super-Peer Virtual Network (May 2003),
  29. 29.
    Zhao, B.Y., Huang, L., Stribling, J., Rhea, S.C., Joseph, A.D., Kubiatowicz, J.: Tapestry: A Resilient Global-scale Overlay for Service Deployment. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 22(1), 41–53 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasilios Darlagiannis
    • 1
  • Nicolas Liebau
    • 1
  • Oliver Heckmann
    • 1
  • Andreas Mauthe
    • 2
  • Ralf Steinmetz
    • 1
  1. 1.Multimedia Communications Lab (KOM), Technische Universität DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany
  2. 2.Computing DepartmentLancaster UniversityLancasterUK

Personalised recommendations