Evaluation of Technical Measures for Workflow Similarity Based on a Pilot Study

  • Andreas Wombacher
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4275)


Service discovery of state dependent services has to take workflow aspects into account. To increase the usability of a service discovery, the result list of services should be ordered with regard to the relevance of the services. Means of ordering a list of workflows due to their similarity with regard to a query are missing. In this paper different similarity measures are presented and evaluated based on a pilot of an empirical study. In particular the different measures are compared with the study results. It turns out that the quality of the different measures differ significantly.


Similarity Measure Service Discovery Edit Distance Execution Sequence Mining Measure 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alves De Medeiros, A., Günther, C.: Process mining: Using CPN tools to create test logs for mining algorithms. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on the Practical Use of Coloured Petri Nets and CPN Tools (CPN) (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baeza-Yates, R.A.: Text retrieval: theory and practice. In: van Leeuwen, J. (ed.) Proceedings of the 12th IFIP World Computer Congress, Madrid, Spain, pp. 465–476. North-Holland, Amsterdam (1992)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chartrand, G., Kubicki, G., Schultz, M.: Graph similarity and distance in graphs. Aequationes Mathematicae 55, 129–145 (1998)MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    DeRemer, F., Kron, H.H.: Programming-in-the-large versus programming-in-the-small. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 2, 80–86 (1976)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Desharnais, J., Gupta, V., Jagadeesan, R., Panangaden, P.: Metrics for labelled markov processes. Theoretical Computer Science, 318 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Du, Z., Huai, J., Liu, Y., Hu, C., Lei, L.: IPR: Automated interaction process reconciliation. In: Proceedings of IEEE/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI) (accepted for publication) (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Folmer, E., Krukkert, D.: openXchange as ebXML implementation and validation; the first results. In: Proceeding of XML Europe 2003 Conference & Exposition (May 2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fu, X., Bultan, T., Su, J.: Realizability of conversation protocols with message contents. In: Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS), pp. 96–103. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hopcroft, J.E., Motwani, R., Ullman, J.D.: Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation. Addison-Wesley, Reading (2001)MATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kindler, E., Martens, A., Reisig, W.: Inter-operability of workflow applications: Local criteria for global soundness. In: Business Process Management, Models, Techniques, and Empirical Studies, pp. 235–253. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krukkert, D.: Matchmaking of ebXML business processes. Technical Report IST-28584-OX_D2.3_v.2.0, openXchange Project (October 2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Levenshtein, L.I.: Binary codes capable of correcting deletions, insertions, and reversals. Soviet Physics–Doklady 10(8), 707–710 (1966)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mahleko, B., Wombacher, A., Fankhauser, P.: A grammar-based index for matching business processes. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS), pp. 21–30. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mahleko, B., Wombacher, A., Fankhauser, P.: Process-annotated service discovery facilitated by an n-gram based index. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Confernce on e-Technology, e-Commerce and e-Service (EEE), pp. 2–8 (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mecella, M., Pernici, B., Craca, P.: Compatibility of e-Services in a Cooperative Multi-platform Environment. In: Casati, F., Georgakopoulos, D., Shan, M.-C. (eds.) TES 2001. LNCS, vol. 2193, pp. 44–57. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Messmer, B.T., Bunke, H.: A new algorithm for error-tolerant subgraph isomorphism detection. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 20(5), 493–504 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mohri, M.: Edit-distance of weighted automata: General definitions and algorithms. International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science 14(6), 957–982 (2003)MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Molina-Jimenez, C., Shrivastava, S., Solaiman, E., Warne, J.: Contract representation for run-time monitoring and enforcement. In: Proceedings of Conference on Electronic Commerce (CEC), pp. 103–110. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    RosettaNet. RosettaNet home page (2004), http://www.rosettanet.org
  20. 20.
    Rozie, M., Wombacher, A.: Questionnaire of the empirical workflow similarity study (2005), http://www.cs.utwente.nl/~wombachera/papers/questionnaire_v1.0.zip
  21. 21.
    Rozinat, A., van der Aalst, W.M.P.: Conformance testing: Measuring the fit and appropriateness of event logs and process models. In: Bussler, C.J., Haller, A. (eds.) BPM 2005. LNCS, vol. 3812, pp. 163–176. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Singh, M.P., Chopra, A.K., Desai, N., Mallya, A.U.: Protocols for processes: programming in the large for open systems. SIGPLAN Notices 39(12), 73–83 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tzschach, H., Hasslinger, G.: Codes fuer den stoerungssicheren Datentransfer. Oldenburg Verlag (1993)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    van Breugel, F.: A behavioural pseudometric for metric labelled transition systems. In: Abadi, M., de Alfaro, L. (eds.) CONCUR 2005. LNCS, vol. 3653, pp. 141–155. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    van der Aalst, W.: Interorganizational workflows: An approach based on message sequence charts and petri nets. Systems Analysis - Modelling - Simulation 34(3), 335–367 (1999)MATHGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    van der Aalst, W., Basten, T.: Inheritance of workflows: an approach to tackling problems related to change. Theor. Comput. Sci. 270(1-2), 125–203Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    van der Aalst, W., Hee, K.: Workflow Management - Models, Methods, and Systems. MIT Press, Cambridge (2002)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P., ter Hofstede, A.H.M., Weske, M.: Business process management: A survey. In: van der Aalst, W.M.P., ter Hofstede, A.H.M., Weske, M. (eds.) BPM 2003. LNCS, vol. 2678, pp. 1–12. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    van Dongen, B.F., de Medeiros, A.K.A., Verbeek, H.M.W(E.), Weijters, A.J.M.M.T., van der Aalst, W.M.P.: The proM framework: A new era in process mining tool support. In: Ciardo, G., Darondeau, P. (eds.) ICATPN 2005. LNCS, vol. 3536, pp. 444–454. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wombacher, A., Fankhauser, P., Mahleko, B., Neuhold, E.: Matchmaking for business processes based on choreographies. In: Proceedings of International Conference on e-Technology, e-Commerce and e-Service (EEE 2004). IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wombacher, A., Mahleko, B., Neuhold, E.: IPSI-PF:a business process matchmaking engine based on annotated finite state automata. Journal on Information Systems and E-Business Management 3(2), 127–150 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wombacher, A., Rozie, M.: Evaluation of workflow similarity measures in service discovery. In: Tagungsband der Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik - Service Oriented E-Commerce Track (MKWI). Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), vol. P-80, pp. 57–72. Gesellschaft fuer Informatik (2006)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wombacher, A., Rozie, M.: Piloting an empirical study on meassures for workflow similarity. In: IEEE International Conference on Services Computing SCC (accepted) (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Wombacher
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations