Semantically Integrating Portlets in Portals Through Annotation

  • Iñaki Paz
  • Oscar Díaz
  • Robert Baumgartner
  • Sergio F. Anzuola
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4255)


Portlets are currently supported by most portal frameworks. However, there is not yet a definitive answer to portlet interoperation whereby data flows smoothly from one portlet to a neighboring one. One of the approaches is to use deep annotation. By providing additional markup about the background services, deep annotation strives to interact with these underlying services rather than with the HTML surface that conveys the markup. In this way, the portlet can extend portlet markup with meta-data about the processes this markup conveys. Then, the portlet consumer (e.g. a portal) can use this meta-data to guide mapping from available data found in markup of portlet A to required data in markup of portlet B. This mapping is visualised as portlet B having its input form (or other “input” widget) filled up. However, annotating is a cumbersome process that forces to keep in synchrony the meta-data and the resources being annotated (i.e. the markup). This paper presents an automatic process whereby annotations are generated from portlet markups without user intervention. We detail our prototype using Lixto Visual Wrappers to extract semantic data from the markup.


Input Form Input Service Sample Fragment Task Ontology Semantic Markup 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baumgartner, R., Eichholz, S., Flesca, S., Gottlob, G., Herzog, M.: Semantic Markup of News Items with Lixto. In: Annotation for the Semantic Web. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Application, vol. 96. IOSPress, Amsterdam (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baumgartner, R., Flesca, S., Gottlob, G.: Visual web information extraction with lixto. In: 27th I.C. on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB 2001), pp. 119–128. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baumgartner, R., Henze, N., Herzog, M.: The Personal Publication Reader: Illustrating Web Data Extraction, Personalization and Reasoning for the Semantic Web. In: Gómez-Pérez, A., Euzenat, J. (eds.) ESWC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3532, pp. 515–530. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    W3C Consortium. OWL-S: Semantic Markup for Web Services (2004), at:
  5. 5.
    Dell’Erba, M., Fodor, O., Ricci, F., Werthner, H.: Harmonise: A solution for data interoperability. In: Towards The Knowledge Society: eCommerce, eBusiness, and eGovernment, IFIP I3E 2002. IFIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 233, pp. 433–445. Kluwer, Dordrecht (2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Díaz, O., Iturrioz, J., Irastorza, A.: Improving portlet interoperability through deep annotation. In: WWW 2005: 14th international conference on World Wide Web, pp. 372–381. ACM Press, New York (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ding, Y., Embley, D.W., Liddle, S.W.: Semantic annotation based on extraction ontologies (submitted manuscript) (2005), at:
  8. 8.
    Handschuh, S., Volz, R., Staab, S.: Annotation for the Deep Web. IEEE Intelligent Systems 18(5), 42–48 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huynh, D., Mazzocchi, S., Karger, D.: Piggy bank: Experience the semantic web inside your web browser. In: Gil, Y., Motta, E., Benjamins, V.R., Musen, M.A. (eds.) ISWC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3729, pp. 413–430. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    JCP. JSR 168 Portlet Specification Version 1.0 (September 2003), at:
  11. 11.
    Kushmerick, N.: Learning to invoke web forms. In: Meersman, R., Tari, Z., Schmidt, D.C. (eds.) CoopIS 2003, DOA 2003, and ODBASE 2003. LNCS, vol. 2888, pp. 997–1013. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu, B., Grossman, R., Zhai, Y.: Mining data records in web pages. In: KDD 2003: Proceedings of the ninth ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining, pp. 601–606. ACM Press, New York (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    OASIS. Web Service for Remote Portlets Specification Version 1.0 (2003),
  14. 14.
    Paolucci, M., Kawamura, T., Payne, T.R., Sycara, K.: Semantic Matching of Web Services Capabilities. In: 1st International Semantic Web Conference, pp. 333–347. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Paz, I., Díaz, O.: On portletizing web applications. In: 2nd revision in ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, ACM TOIT (2006)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sirin, E., Hendler, J., Parsia, B.: Semi-automatic Composition of Web Services using Semantic Descriptions. In: 1st Workshop on Web Services: Modeling, Architecture and Infrastructure, pp. 17–24. ICEIS Press (April 2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iñaki Paz
    • 1
  • Oscar Díaz
    • 1
  • Robert Baumgartner
    • 2
  • Sergio F. Anzuola
    • 1
  1. 1.ONEKIN Research GroupUniversity of the Basque Country 
  2. 2.DBAI, Institute of Information SystemsVienna University of Technology 

Personalised recommendations