Granular Computing – The Concept of Generalized Constraint-Based Computation

  • Lotfi A. Zadeh
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4259)


Basically, granular computing is a mode of computing in which the objects of computation are granular variables. Let X be a variable which takes values in a universe of discourse, U. Informally, a granule is a clump of elements of U which are drawn together by indistinguishability, similarity or proximity. For example, an interval is a granule; so is a fuzzy interval; so is a gaussian distribution; and so is a cluster of elements of U. A granular variable is a variable which takes granules as values. If G is value of X, then G is referred to as a granular value of X. If G is a singleton, then G is a singular value of X. A linguistic variable is a granular variable whose values are labeled with words drawn from a natural language. For example, if X is temperature, then 101.3 is a singular value of temperature, while “high” is a granular (linguistic) value of temperature.


Natural Language Linguistic Variable Machine Intelligence Generalize Constraint Computational Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lotfi A. Zadeh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EECSUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyU.S.A.

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